Synthesis of Sentences in English

Synthesis of Sentences in English
            The process by which two or more simple sentences are joined into one simple, compound or complex sentence is called synthesis.
Simple Sentence:
Look at these sentences:

Separate (Simple Sentences)
Combined (Simple Sentences)
1.
(a) He heard a noise.
(b) He got up.
Hearing a noise, he got up.
2.
(a) He has three sons.
(b) He has to educate them.
He has three sons to educate.
3.
(a) You will win the election.
(b) That is certain.
You’ll certainly win the election.
Note: A simple sentence must have a subject and a finite verb.
Compound Sentence:
            Look at these sentences:
Separate (Simple Sentences)
Combined (Simple Sentences)
1.
(a) I went to the fair.
(b) I did not buy anything.
I went to the fair but did not buy anything.
2.
(a) Tom got up.
(b) He went to the post office.
Tom got up and went to the post office.
3.
(a) You can have tea.
(b) You can have coffee.
You can have tea or coffee.
Note:    (i)         There are two or more clauses in a compound sentence.
            (ii)        Connectives of compound sentence – and, still, however, both … and, or yet, nevertheless, neither… nor, but, nor, therefore, not only ….. but also.
Complex Sentence:
            Look at these sentences:
Separate (Simple Sentences)
Combined (Simple Sentences)
1.
(a) I went there.
(b) The door was locked.
When I went there, the door was locked:
2.
(a) This is the letter.
(b) Mukul wrote it.
This is the letter which Mukul wrote.
3.
(a) I was right.
(b) The teacher told me this.
The teacher told me that I was right.
 Note: There may be many main clauses in a complex sentence but one of them at least, must be subordinate clause.
Combining Simple Sentences:
            Now we’ll learn how to combine simple sentences.
I.          Use of and. as well as, both … and, not only … but also.
Look at these sentences:
Separate (Simple Sentences)
Combined (Simple Sentences)
1.
(a) I finished my breakfast.
(b) I went for a walk.
I finished my breakfast and went for a walk.
2.
(a) Madiha was punished.
(b) Hania was punished.
Madiha as well as Hania was punished.
3.
(a) He speaks Urdu.
(b) He speaks English.
He speaks both Urdu and English.
4.
(a) John was fined.
(b) John was expelled also.
John was not only fined but also expelled.
II.         Use of or, nor, neither, else, otherwise, either… or, neither … nor.
Look at these sentences:
Separate (Simple Sentences)
Combined (Simple Sentences)
1.
(a) Will you have tea?.
(b) Will you have coffee?
Will you have tea or coffee?
2.
(a) He does not play football.
(b) He does not play cricket.
He plays neither football nor cricket.
3.
(a) Rahim does not smoke.
(b) He does not drink.
Rahim neither smokes nor drinks.
4.
(a) Run fast.
(b) You will be late.
Run fast, else you’ll be late.
5.
(a) Mend your ways.
(b) You will suffer.
Mend your ways, otherwise you will suffer.
6.
(a) Rehana can do it.
(b) Ruby can do it.
Either Rehana or Ruby can do it.
7.
(a) The banks are not open today.
(b) The schools are not open today.
Neither the banks nor the schools are open today.
III.       Use of but, still, yet, nevertheless, however.
Look at these sentences.
Separate (Simple Sentences)
Combined (Simple Sentences)
1.
(a) Many of you can read English.
(b) You cannot speak English.
Many of you can read but cannot speak English.
2.
(a) He is rich.
(b) He is unhappy.
He is rich, still he is unhappy.
3.
(a) Pervaiz worked hard.
(b) He failed.
Pervaiz worked hard, yet he failed.
4.
(a) He has a lot of faults.
(b) I admire him very much.
He has a lot of faults, nevertheless I admire him very much.
5.
(a) He was ill.
(b) He decided to go.
He was ill, however, he decided to go.
IV.       Use of therefore, so, far, consequently, hence.
Look at these sentences:
Separate (Simple Sentences)
Combined (Simple Sentences)
1.
(a) He was found guilty.
(b) He was hanged.
He was found guilty; therefore, he was hanged.
2.
(a) It was getting dark.
(b) We went home.
It was getting dark, so we went home.
3.
(a) We we’ll die one day.
(b) All men are mortal.
We will die one day, for all men are mortal.
4.
(a) They would not believe me.
(b) I had to give them proofs.
They would not believe me, consequently I had to give them proofs.
5.
(a) He died for us.
(b) We honour him.
He died for us, hence we honour him.
V.         Use of as …. As, so …. As, than.
Look at these sentences:
Separate (Simple Sentences)
Combined (Simple Sentences)
1.
(a) She is pretty.
(b) Her sister is pretty.
She is as pretty as her sister.
2.
(a) She did not run quickly.
(b) Her sister ran quickly.
She did not run, so quickly as her sister.
3.
(a) This book is easier.
(b) That book is easy.
This book is easier than that book.
VI.       Use of Who, whom, whose, which, that.
Look at these sentences.
Separate (Simple Sentences)
Combined (Simple Sentences)
1.
(a) I met my friend.
(b) He is in London now.
I met my friend who is in London now.
2.
(a) Here is the boy.
(b) You wanted to see.
Here is the boy whom you wanted to see.
3.
(a) This is the girl.
(b) Her parents are in Lahore..
This is the girl whose parents are in Lahore.
4.
(a) I have a car.
(b) It is blue.
I have a car which is blue.
5.
(a) This is the house.
(b) Javaid Built it.
This is the house that Javaid built.
VII.      Use of when, whenever, while, before, after, as, since, as soon as.
Look at these sentences:
Separate
Combined
1.
(a) The sun set.
(b) We returned home.
When the sun set, we returned home.
2.
(a) I want to go.
(b) The child begins to cry.
Whenever I want to go, the child begins to cry.
3.
(a) I wrote the letter.
(b) I was in hospital.
I wrote the letter while I was in hospital.
4.
(a) I had left home.
(b) He came later.
I had left home before he came.
5.
(a) I arrived.
(b) He had left.
I arrived after he had left.
6.
(a) I found it.
(b) I was going to college.
I found it as I was going to college.
7.
  (  (a) Mr. Rehan is ill.
(b) He cannot attend the meeting.
Since Mr. Rehan is ill, he cannot attend the Meeting.
8.
(a) He will do it. (b) He comes home.
He will do it as soon as he comes home.
VIII.     Use of till, until, as long as
Look at these sentences:
Separate
Combined
1.
(a) Let us wait.
(b) The rain stops.
Let us wait till the rain stops.
2.
(a) I told him to stay.
(b) I returned.
I told him to stay until I returned.
3.
(a) You can keep the book.
(b) You like.
You can keep the book as long as you like.
IX.       Use of because, if. unless, though, although.
Look at these sentences:
Separate
Combined
1.
(a) I did it.
(b) I had to do it.
I did it because I had to do it.
2.
(a) Don’t eat too much
(b) You will be ill.
If you eat too much, you we’ll be ill.
3.
(a) You must work hard.
(b) Otherwise you won’t pass.
You won’t pass unless you work hard.
4.
(a) He is contented.
(b) He is poor.
He is contented, though he is poor.
5.
(a) He did not have much wealth. (b) He was not unhappy.
Although he did not have much wealth, he was not unhappy.
X.         Use of as, if, where, why.
Look at these sentences:
Separate
Combined
1.
(a) It looks. (b) It will rain.
It looks as if it will rain.
2.
(a) It is heavy rainfall there.
(b) Maize will not grow at such a place.
Maize will not grow where there is heavy rainfall.
3.
(a) She refused to sing.
(b) Can she tell me the reason?
Can she tell me the reason why she refused to sing?
XI.       Use of that, whether, how, what
Look at these sentences:
Separate
Combined
1.
(a) He is hard working.
(b) Everybody knows it.
Everybody knows that he is hard working.
2.
(a) She may be in the office.
(b) I do not know.
I do not know whether she is in the office.
3.
(a) How should I do this sum?
(b) I do not know this.
I don’t know how I should do this sum.
4.
(a) What did she say?
(b) This was it.
This was what she said.
XII.      Use of to, too … to.
Look at these sentences:
Separate
Combined
1.
(a) He is going to Karachi.
(b) He will start business.
He is going to Karachi to start business.
2.
(a) You must help your friend.
(b) It is your duty.
It is your duty to help your friend.
3.
(a) It is very heavy.
(b) I can’t lift it.
It is too heavy for me to lift.
4.
(a) She is too weak.
(b) She cannot attend school.
She is too weak to attend school.
XIII.     Use of verb1+ing, having +v3, being + v3
Look at these sentences:
Separate
Combined
1.
(a) I saw a tiger.
(b) I cried out.
Seeing a tiger, I cried out.
2.
(a) She took a pencil.
(b) She began to write.
Taking a pencil, she began to write.
3.
(a) I read the book.
(b) I returned it to Shan.
Having read the book, I returned it to Shan.
4.
(a) He lost his fortune.
(b) He is now a beggar.
Having lost his fortune, he is now a beggar.
5.
(a) He is tired of play.
(b) He wants rest.
Being tired of play, he wants rest.
XIV.     Use of noun or phrase in apposition.
Look at these sentences:
Separate
Combined
1.
(a) Ishfaq is my friend.
(b) He plays badminton with me.
Ishfaq, my friend, plays badminton with me.
2.
(a) Lahore is the capital of the Punab.
(b) It is situated on the bank of the Ravi.
Lahore, the capital of, the Punjab, is situated on the bank of the Ravi.
Linking Words
And
but
or
so
For
yet
till
until
Who
when
as
if
That
which
since
how
What
while
hence
else
Nor
after
before
than
When
whose
why
where
Though
although
unless
because
Whether
therefore
still
neither
Otherwise
whenever
nevertheless
consequently
However
as if
as well as
as long as
as soon as
both …. and
as …. as
so …. as
even if
neither …. nor
either … or
not only … but also
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