Grammar Lesson Two – Going to/Fond of

DOWNLOAD THE LESSON…
Today, we are going to learn  “GOING TO” and “FOND OF”. Download the lesson, Print the sheet and learn today’s grammar.

Advertisements

Hardships faced by Pakistan After its Creation

Pakistan and the Modern World – BA English
At the time of partition Pakistan had to face many hardships and problems. Pakistan was quite a new state having no capital, no flag and no administrative power. It received no military equipment. So it was very difficult for Pakistan to manage things for its survival.

Industry was poor and people were backward. The only thing Pakistan had was the unity, will power and determination of its people to face all these problems. Freedom and independence with a poor economic condition had set Pakistan on a blind way which had the light of goal far away. Liaquat Ali Khan mentioned in his speech the duties which our freedom demanded from us. According to his point of view, it was our first and foremost duty to maintain and safeguard the freedom. Freedom from foreign rule was not the real freedom. Real freedom was freedom of common man from the threat of poverty, disease, social security and ignorance. So it was necessary for the people of Pakistan to utilize all the qualities of their mind and soul to get the maximum out of least given to them. 

Pakistan and the Modern World

Liaqat Ali Khan’s Expectations
In his speech at Kansas, Liaquat Ali Khan tried to explain the expectation Pakistan had had from American and Western world. According to him, Pakistan was one of developing Asian countries, trying to pace on the way to progress. Had the developed countries helped it, it could have joined them in the same capacity.
To maintain the rate of progress Pakistan was looking towards the advanced nations such as America to owe helping hand. Liaquat Ali Khan viewed the progress of Pakistan not merely as the progress of a country but as a development and solidarity of Asia. Asia was a backward part of the world with people struggling against poverty, disease and ignorance. To make the world prosperous and strong, this major part of the world was necessary to be supported by the developed countries. Being situated in the centre of Asia a strong Pakistan could be a guarantee of peace in her continent. At that time only Pakistan was unified enough to lead other countries of her part on the way of progress. So America and other developed nations should support Pakistan and help it to improve its economical, educational and social knowledge.

Pakistan and the Modern World by Liaqat Ali Khan

Circumstances which led to the Creation of Pakistan
Pakistan and the Modern World’ is, in fact, the speech of Liaquat Ali Khan that he made at University of Kansas, America. In his speech he tried to introduce Pakistan to the modern world by justifying the causes of its creation and highlighting its future expectations from the developed nations of the world.



He brought to light all the major causes which made it necessary for Muslims to establish an independent state for them. In the united sub-continent, there was a multitude of nations including Muslims, Hindus, Sikhs, Parsees and such other nations. Hindus and Muslims were two main nations in that part of the world. They were living together for centuries but nothing common could be developed among them. They had their different cultural, social, economical and educational back-grounds. They had a definite prejudice and bias towards each other to the effect that they could never intermarry nor inter-dine. So it was impossible for them to live independently under one rule. Hindus were in majority with the ratio of 1:3. When the English government decided to quit from sub-continent, Hindus were ready to capture the reign after the departure of British. So for the Muslims, freedom from British rule was nothing but a change of masters. There could easily be discerned a perpetual clash between Hindu majority and Muslims and a continual problem of law and order. Sub-continent was vast enough to be divided into two independent parts. It was surely difficult for one ruler to keep such a heavy mass under his control. A fear of political and social disturbance could always be there. So the Muslims rightly decided to struggle for a separate independent homeland for them where they could lead their lives according to their own religious, political, cultural, economical and social life style.

General Principles of Language Teaching

INTRODUCTION

Learning a second or a foreign language is more than learning a description of it. It is developing the ability to use the language on habit level. This is true of not only second language learning but also of first language learning. Fundamentally, all language learning involves the processes of listening, speaking, reading and writing. These processes involve both linguistic and psychological aspects. This leads us to understand that all language learning is based on certain well-defined principles derived from linguistic science as well as psychological science. In the following paras, these principles have been discussed.
GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF TEACHING ENGLISH
(Principles Derived from the Linguistic Science.)

The modern approach to all language learning and teaching is the scientific one and is based on sound linguistic principles. The principles discussed below in no way claim finality : they are subject to change in the light of new facts exposed by linguists and language users. These principles are general principles and are applicable to English language.

Principle 1. Give Priority to Sounds: The sounds of English should receive priority. Sounds should be given their due place in the scheme of teaching. Sounds should not be presented in isolation. They should appear in proper expressions and sentences spoken with the intonation and rhythm which would be used by a native speaker.

Principle 2. Present Language in Basic Sentence Patterns: Present, and have the students memorise, basic sentence patterns used in day to day conversation. From small utterances the students can easily pass on to longer sentences. In case of learning mother-tongue, the student’s memory span can retain much longer sentences than those of a foreign language. The facility thus gained in a foreign language enables the learners expand the grasp of the language material in respect of sounds and vocabulary items.

Principle 3. Language Patterns as Habits. Real language ability is at the habit level. It does not just mean knowing about the language. Make language patterns as habit through intensive pattern practice in variety of situations. The students must be taught to use language patterns and sentence constructions with appropriate vocabulary at normal speed for communication. In fact the habitual use of the most frequently used patterns and items of language, should take precedence over the mere accumulation of words.

Principle 4. Imitation. Imitation is an important principle of language learning. No leaner by himself ever invented language. Good speech is the result of imitating good models. The model should be intelligible. Imitation followed by intensive practice helps in the mastery of the language system.

Principle 5. Controlled Vocabulary. Vocabulary should be kept under control. Vocabulary should be taught and practised only in the context of real situations. This way, meaning will be clarified and reinforced.

Principle 6. Graded Patterns: “To teach a language is to impart a new system of complex habits, and habits are acquired slowly.” (R.Lado) So, language patterns should be taught gradually, in cumulative graded steps. This means, the teacher should go on adding each new element or pattern to previous ones. New patterns of language should be introduced and practised with vocabulary that students already know.

Principle 7. Selection and Gradation: Selection of the language material to be taught is the first requisite of good teaching. Selection should be done in respect of grammatical items and vocabulary and structures.

Selection of language items should involve
frequency     (how often a certain item or word is used)
range           (in what different contexts a word or an item can be used)
coverage      (how many different meanings a word or an item can convey)
availability   (how far an item is convenient to teach)
learnability  (how far an item is easy to learn)
teachability  (how far and item is easy to teach – in the social context)

Gradation of the language material means placing the language items in an order. Grading involves grouping and sequence. Grouping concerns (i) the system of language, and (ii) its structures. Grouping the system of language means what sounds, words, phrases and meanings are to be taught.
Thus we have:
(i) Phonetic grouping, i.e. grouping according to sounds. For example, words having the same sound are placed in the one group as, cat, bat, mat, pat, fat, sat; it, bit, fit, hit, kit, it, etc.
(ii) Lexical grouping, i.e., grouping according to lexical situations. Example: school, teacher, headmaster, peon, class-room, library. All these words are grouped around “school.”
(iii) Grammatical grouping, i.e., grouping according to similar patterns as, my book/ his book, (pattern grouping): in the room, in the corner/ in the class/in the garden, etc. (phrase grouping)
(iv) Semantic grouping, i.e., grouping according to meaning. Example: school, college, university; bicycle, rickshaw, car, tonga, train, aeroplane, etc,.
(v) Structure grouping, i.e., grouping in the structures means how the selected items fit one into the other-the sounds into the words, the words into phrases, the phrases into the clauses and sentences, and the sentences into the context.
Sequence meants what comes after what. Sequence should be there in the arrangement of sounds (phonetic sequence), phrases (grammatical sequence) words (lexical sequence) and in meaning (semantic sequence). Sequence of structures implies direction, expansion, variation and length of the structures.
Principle 8. The Oral Way. Experts believe that the oral way is the surest way to language learning. Prof. Kittson rightly observes,. “Learning to speak a language is always the shortest road to learning to read and write it.” Prof Palmer also writes,. “We should refrain from reading and writing any given material until we have learnt to use its spoken form.”
Principle 9. Priorities of Language Skills: Listening (with understanding), speaking, reading and writing are the four fundamental skills. Listening and speaking are primary skills, while reading and writing are secondary skills. Reading and writing are reinforcement skills. They reinforce what has been learnt through understanding and speaking. In fact, understanding and speaking speed up the reading process. Writing should be introduced after reading.
Principle 10. Multiple Line of Approach: “The term multiple line implies that one is to proceed simultaneously from many different points towards the one and the same end. We should reject nothing except the useless material and should selected judiciously and without prejudice all that is likely to help in our work”. In teaching a language, it implies attacking the problem from all fronts. Say, for example, there is a lesson on ‘Holidays’ in the text book. The teacher can have a number of language activities connected with the topic such as oral drill, reading, sentence writing, composition, grammar, translation, language exercises etc.
Principle 11. Language Habit through Language Using: A language is best learnt through use in different contexts and situations. Prof. Eugene A. Nida rightly observes, “Language learning means plunging headlong into a series of completely different experiences. It means exposing oneself to situations where the use of language is required.” Another expert expresses a similar opinion by saying: “Learning a language means forming new habits through intensive practice in tearing and speaking. The emphasis should always be on language in actual use”.
Principle 12 Spiral Approach. The “spiral” approach to language learning should be followed. Previously taught vocabulary and structures should be reintroduced in subsequent units whenever logical or possible. This is “spiral approach.
Principle 13. Use Mother-tongue Sparingly. The mother-tongue should be sparingly and judiciously used during teaching English. Of course, at the early stage, some explanations will have to be given in pupil’s mother tongue. It is important that students do not use their mother-tongue in the classroom.
PSYCHOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES OF TEACHING ENGLISH
It will not be out of place to list down certain principles which have been derived from the science of psychology.
Principle 1. Motivation. Motivation is an important factor in language learning, particularly in learning a second language. It creates interest as well as the need to learn the language in hand. If the need for the language we use is felt, it is learnt easily. Pupils’ interest can be aroused in a number of ways, and language learning can be made increasingly interesting and attractive. It can be done with the help of pictures, charts, models, flash cards, black board sketches and similar other visual devices. The use of tape-recorder can be most effective in the teaching of pronunciation. The aim is to have the students maximally exposed to the target language in variety of contexts and situations, not in isolation. The teacher should prompt connections, feed back and correct errors, if any. The rule is teach, test, reteach, retest. The teacher should make continual and significant use of language material in class-room situations. Palmer suggests the following six factors which lead to motivate and create interest among children:
(i)   The limitation of bewilderment, that is, minimum of confusion;
(ii)  The sense of progress achieved;
(iii) Competitions;
(iv) Game-like exercises;
(v)  The right relation between teacher and student; and
(vi) Variety.
Principle 2. Immediate Correction. Do make corrections. Corrections make all the difference. They help in improving pupils’ responses. But remember, when corrections are made, they should be made immediately. Moreover, the corrections should be made in such a way as will bring about learning and not frustration or discouragement.
Principle 3. Reinforcement Immediate reinforcement is an important principle. It has been experimentally proved that reinforcement of correct responses helps in better learning. The student should be told his response is correct immediately after it is given by him.
Principle 4. Frequent Review. An important psychological principle is the principle of frequent review. Frequent review and re-entry of the same material is necessary for retention. During the process of reviewing, variations in material should be essentially be introduced and practised.
Principle 5. Correct Responses. It is an important psychological principle that classroom activities should strengthen the language skills. The techniques used by the teacher of English should encourage the maximum rate of correct responses. This will give children the feeling of success, achievement and assured progress.
Principle 6. Practice in Everyday Situations. A language is best learnt when its need is felt in everyday situations. So, English should be practised in every day situations with which children can easily identify.
In short, the children, their environment and their experiences, should be the starting point. Let them recall (and, they should be helped, if they fail) something familiar which is related to or contrasts with a new language item to be learnt.
These are, then, some of the basic principles of language learning and teaching. These principles are in no way dictative: they are only suggestive.
Remember then.
(i)    Teach the language, not about the language.
(ii)   Teach the’ language, not its written system (at the start).
(iii)  Teach the language, as it is, not as any one thinks it to be.
(iv)   Teach the language, not its literature.
(v)    Teach the language as it is now, not in term of its history.
(vi)   Teach the language as a skill, not as an intellectual task.
(vii)  Teach the language in varied, interesting situations.
(viii) Give maximum exposure.
(ix)   Give vocabulary its due place.
(x)    Use mother-tongue as a tool, not a medium.
(xi)   Immediately reinforce correct response.

Semantics, Pragmatics and Discourse

Semantics and Pragmatics
Not only has semantics now become an important area of inquiry in linguistics but it has also been extended to the level of pragmatics. Pragmatics is seen b some linguists as an independent level of language analysis as it is based on utterances in the same way as phonology is based on sound, syntax on sentences and semantics on both words and sentences. The link between pragmatics and semantics remains, however, that at both levels we are concerned with meaning. Semantics attempts to relate meaning to logic and truth, and deals with meaning as a matter primarily of sense-relations within the language. Pragmatics attempts to relate meaning to context of utterance; it views language as action which is performed by speakers.


What is the context of utterance? A sentence is uttered by a speaker, and when the speaker utters it, he/she performs an act. This is called a speech-act. Since it is performed by a speaker in relation to a hearer (or addressee), it depends on the conditions prevailing at the time the speech-act is performed. These conditions include the previous knowledge shared by speaker and hearer, and the reasons for the performance of the act. All these taken together constitute the context of utterance-speaker(s), hearer(h), sentence(s) and utterance(u).
Meaning in this sense involves the speaker’s intention to convey a certain meaning which may not be evident in the message itself. In the sentence ‘There’s a fly in my soup’, the message is that ‘There is a fly in my soup’ in which the speaker’s intention may be to complain. So the meaning of the utterance contains the meaning of complaint. A hearer hearing this sentence may interpret it not just as a statement but as a request to take the soup away. That is, the meaning will include some intended effect on the hearer.

The consideration of meaning as a part of the utterance or speech act was initiated by the philosopher J.L. Austin (How to Do Things With Words) and developed by J. Searle and H.Y. Grice. Let us consider Austin’s idea first. Keeping in view the above distinction between the speaker’s intention to convey a particular meaning which may not be evident in the message itself, Austin makes a distinction between Sense and Force. Sense is the propositional content or logical meaning of a sentence. Austin calls it the locutionary meaning. Force is the act performed in uttering a sentence. It is the performative meaning, defined by Austin as Illocutionary Force. For example, the utterance ‘Please shut the door’ is an imperative sentence. The logical or propositional context is that of shutting the door. It will have the force of request if the speaker and hearer are in some relationship which allows the speaker to make requests to the hearer, the hearer is in a position where he is capable of shutting the door, there is a particular door which the speaker is indicating and that door is open. If all these conditions are not fulfilled, the utterance will not have the force of request. We can chart the meaning of the above sentence as follows:

Please shut the door           Sentence form : Imperative
                                          Sense : Shutting the door (someone)
Force : Request

In this sentence, sense and force are very similar to each other. However, in some cases there may be a difference. For example, if the speaker says, Can you shut the door?’ the sentence form is interrogative, the sense is ‘can’ + ‘you’ + ‘shut the door’, that is, the logical meaning of the sentence is a question about the ability of the hearer to shut the door, evident in the sense of the modal ‘can’. However, the force is still that of request. In such an utterance, it is clear that the sense is not the total meaning of the utterance, and that if only the sense is considered, the utterance will not succeed as a successful communication. If the hearer takes only the sense of the above sentence, he will understand the sentence only as a question regarding his ability to shut the door; it is only when the force of the utterance is understood that the hearer takes it as a request to shut the door, provided all the conditions for the performance of the request are fulfilled.

In other instances there is even more discrepancy between what the sentence says and what the speaker of the sentence intends the hearer to understand by it, i.e. between sense and force. ‘There’s a cold breeze coming through the door’ is a statement in terms of form and sense, but the speaker may intend it to be a request to shut the door. In this way, there can he any number of variable meanings of the same utterance.

This raises a problem: how can we interpret a sentence when sense and force are very different and nothing in the sentence itself indicates what its force can be? Here a distinction can be made between utterances which are more conventional in nature and others which are more individual and situation-specific. For example, ‘Can you shut the door?’ is the kind of utterance which has become conventionalized to a great extent, so that a hearer is less likely to misinterpret it as a real question, and more likely to understand its force of request. But in the case of ‘There’s a cold breeze coming through the door’, or ‘Its very cold in the room’ or ‘Are you immune to cold?’ there is a more indirect manner of making the request to the hearer. These are more dependent on the relation between the speaker and the hearer. While the conventionalized utterance can occur in many situations, the variable utterances can occur only in specific situations e.g. informal, friendly etc. Only under such conditions will the hearer be able to infer the intended meaning of the speaker.

It is for this reason that Grice (Logic and Conversation, 1975) explains that all communication takes place in a situation where people are co-operative. When people communicate, they assume that the other person will be cooperative and they themselves wish to cooperate. Grice calls this the ‘Cooperative Principle’. Under this principle, the following maxims are followed:

(i) Maxim of quantity. Give the right amount of information, neither less nor more than what is required.
(ii) Maxirn of quality. Make your contribution such that it is true; do not say what you know is false or for which you do not have adequate evidence.
(iii) Maxim of relation. Be relevant.
(iv) Maxim of manner. Avoid obscurity and ambiguity; be brief and orderly.

These ‘Maxims’ are different from rules in that while rules cannot be violated, maxims are often violated. That is, people often give more or less information than required, or make irrelevant contributions. When this happens, some implied meanings arise as a result. For example, in the interaction:

A : Where’s my box of chocolates?
B : The children were in your room this morning.
B violates the Maxim of relation because the reply is apparently not relevant to A’s question. 

A proper response to A’s question would be that B answers A’s question about where the chocolates are. Since B does not give this answer, it implies that B does not know the answer, and also implies a suggestion on B’s part that the children may have taken the chocolates. Similarly, in the interaction:

A : I failed in my test today.
B : Wonderful !

In this case, B’s response violates the maxim of quality in that the expression ‘wonderful’ here is not an expression of delight or actual wonder. A’s statement is not such that would demand a response of exclamation of delight. That such a response is given by B means that B implies something else: the negative of ‘wonderful’ meaning ‘its not wonderful’. But by giving a response like this, and violating the maxim, B is implying irony. The implication generated by an untruthful and exaggerated statement is sarcasm; implication generated by an opposite statement from the one expected is irony. These meanings are possible through the deliberate violation of the conversational maxims and are called ‘conversational implicatures’ by Grice.

The insights provided by these theories of pragmatics have helped us to understand meaning as part of communication rather than as something abstract. They have also helped to analyse units of linguistic organization higher than the sentence, pairs of sentences taken as units, and sequences of sentences taken as texts, leading us to the analysis of meaning in connected language, i.e., discourse.

Discourse Analysis
As soon as we begin to study meaning in language in relation to context, we find that it is situated within two kinds of context. One is the extra-linguistic, i.e. the content of the external world. The other is the intra-linguistic, i.e., the linguistic context in which that piece of language occurs. So, for example, words occur within a sentential context, sentences occur within a context consisting of other sentences. In the ‘analysis of language at the level of discourse, we are concerned with this intra-linguistic context.
Discourse is a level higher than that of the sentence. It includes all the other linguistic levels—sound, lexis, syntax. All these continue to make up a discourse. But here we must distinguish between the grammatical aspect and the semantic/ pragmatic aspect of discourse. The former creates a text and the latter creates a discourse. In the former, words continue to form sentences, sentences combine to form a text. Just as there are rules for combination of words, there are certain relations between sentences and rules by which they may be related. These rules of sentence-connection create cohesion in the text. At the same time, these sentences are also utterances, i.e. they have a force which is vital for understanding their meaning, which are combined to create coherence. Thus we may distinguish between text and discourse in that text is created by sentence-cohesion and discourse is created by coherence. A discourse may be defined as a stretch of language-use which is coherent in its meaning. It will of course include grammar and cohesion. The following is an example of discourse which is both cohesive and coherent:

A : Can you go to Karachi tomorrow?
B : Yes, I can.

The interchange is cohesive because the second sentence does not repeat the whole of the first sentence. Instead of the whole sentence: ‘I can go to Karachi tomorrow’, B says only: ‘I can’, omitting the rest. This indicates that the second sentence is linked to the first in sequential order. It is also coherent because B has given an appropriate response to A from A’s request. However, in the following example:       
   
A : Can you go to    Karachi tomorrow?
B : There is a general strike.

The two sentences are not cohesive because the second sentence is not linked to the first sentence in a grammatical sense. There is no repetition or obvious connection between the two sentences. But they are coherent, because B replies to A’s request in a sentence which gives some information implying that it may not be possible to go to Karachi. Thus, this exchange is coherent but not cohesive.

In order to analyse discourse, it may be necessary to consider all aspects of language: the grammatical as well as the semantic and pragmatic (not forgetting the role of intonation). Grammatical forms which are used to link sentences and create cohesion can be of several kinds : logical connectors such as ‘and’, ‘but’; conjuncts such as ‘also’, ‘equally’, ‘furthermore’, contrasts such as ‘instead’ and similarly, ‘for’ ‘thus’. Deictic elements such as ‘here’, ‘there’, also indicate other references and are thus important in creating cohesion as well as discourse meaning.

Apart from grammatical features, discourse is constituted of features which are particular to the mode, tenor and field or domain of that discourse. The mode may be spoken or written. In spoken discourse there will be features of: inexplicitness, lack of clear sentence boundaries and sentence-completion, repetition, hesitation, interaction and maintenance features, e.g. ‘well’, ‘you know’, while in written discourse there will be features of explicitness, clear sentence boundaries and more complex sentences, formal features but no interactional and monitoring features. The tenor of discourse refers to features relating to the relationship between the speaker and the addressee in a given situation—these features reflect the formality or informality, degree of politeness, a personal or impersonal touch. Thus, if the relationship is a polite one, there will be respectful terms of address, e.g. ‘Sir’, and indirect requests rather than commands. If the relationship is one of familiarity, the features will include terms of friendship e.g. ‘dear’, direct requests and imperatives. Lastly, field or domain of discourse pertains to the area of activity to which that discourse belongs, e.g. whether the discourse is in the field of religion, science, law, journalism, advertising. In each field, the discourse will be characterized by a particular kind of vocabulary and sentence structure, e.g. sports commentary uses present tense; advertising uses many adjectives. Literary discourse often freely combines features from many kinds of discourse and occupies a different status from other types of discourse.

Major Themes in Rich’s Poetry

Adrienne Rich’s poetry weaves a cultural and emotional tapestry that is bold, sometimes uneven, but always innovative and profoundly original and powerful. Certain strands persist throughout—a commitment to lucidity, authentic communication, community and social change; other threads—revolutionary anger, political activism are also the main concerns of Adrienne Rich. In Rich’s poetry, reader is all the time with a woman who is sensitive, romantic, easy to be influenced on the one hand but on the other hand this woman is bold enough to criticize and discard the male defined—culture and civilization.
She is a poetess who feels with woman and becomes the voice of most deprived regiment of the society. Her “Aunt Jennifer’s Tiger is externalization of a woman who is under the male dominant social set up. Her “Final Notations” presents the confidence of woman in her love. “Gabriel” is an expression of religionist mind, and strong faith in God is hallmark of this poem. Here, Rich has shifted from particular to general trends of twentieth century which are full of social injustices and modern commercialism and are a source of tragic feelings of angel and of poetess. “Diving into the Wreck” is an epic of modern times and it offers woman new horizons in the sky of relations. So in the collection of poems prescribed in the syllabus in particular and in her poetry in general Adrienne Rich is a great champion of woman rights.
Adrienne Rich’s poetry provides a chronicle of the evolving consciousness of the modern woman. Composed in a period of rapid and dramatic social change, her work explores the experience of women who reject patriarchal definitions of feminity by separating themselves from the political and social reality that trivializes and subordinates females. She herself avers that a patriarchal society is one in:
“Which men are dominant and determine what part females shall and shall not play, and in which capabilities assigned to women are related generally to the mystic and aesthetic and excluded from the practical and political realms”.
As a feminist poet, Rich insists on the importance of the “imaginative identification with all women” and commits herself to the recreation of a female community that is dedicated to a nurturing ethos and a reverence of life.
At the award ceremony of her famous book “Diving into the Wreck” she dedicated the occasion to the community of women that transcends race and class:
“The poet, the housewife, the lesbian, the mathematician, the mother, the dishwasher, the pregnant teenager, the teacher, the grand mother, the prostitute the philosopher, the waitress.
This community of women, Rich hopes, will not only resist the damaging and dripping effects of patriarchy but also create a culture in which women have equal economic, social, and political rights with men. Rich has given a new idea of woman state, which is never ever a utopian ideal. She not only dreams for it rather she is also one of the exponents of her idea. In her poetry she has not totally discarded male members of the society but her attraction towards them is marred by their own attitude which is callous and clinical. In “The Final Notations” apparently beloved is bold enough that she can live even without her lover but underlying tone of poignant feelings shows herself a pretty hopeful woman from her love.
Rich in her poetry has given a great deal of individualism to the woman of modern age. Her main concern is that woman of modern age must be considered the effective, dynamic and functional part of the society. For example, Aunt Jennifer is representing the whole community of women. She is repressed physically under the weight of “Uncle’s Wedding Band” but she is free in her mind and soul that is why she is fearful but her creation ‘tigers’ are not afraid of men. This freedom of mind and soul, which is one of the basic rights of every individual are denied to woman under the male defined culture. Rich is against pre set standards of male and female relations and dives deep into the wreck of relation and brings on the surface a new yet free relationship between female and female “I am he, I am she” is the ultimate message of Rich’s struggle.
Rich’s vision of a perfect peaceful society for woman is very attractive and ideal one. Her heroine is always a perfection of feelings incarnate but a mature and confident lady. Her heroin celebrates the ancient mysterious of blood and birth, but no longer she will be defined solely by her reproductive functions; her understanding and experience of life will give her a vision as effective and as commanding as history has known;
“As a city is occupied, as a bed is occupied
It will take all your flesh, it will not be simple”.
Future superwoman will be in command of her body, her erotic and creative energies, and she will celebrate life, not death. No longer will she be an ornamental servant but autonomous, self-directing, and free from the patriarchal edict that anatomy is destiny. This new woman will not spring from the head of Zeus or from Adam’s rib; she must pass through the dangers of this life: she must survive and transcend a culture that can wound and kill her. Her strength and commanding power will depend on her capacity successfully to pass through or turn away from patriarchal domination.