Modern Literature Viva

Q. 1. What are the influences of the modern inventions on literature?
Ans. Methods in industry and agriculture, methods in business and finance have been revolutionized, and all these innovations and modifications have their influence on the physical environment in which the modern author moves and has his being. More directly, the modern press, made possible through improvements in machine production, the rapid collection of news, and the speedy distribution of newspapers and magazines has shown its power in formulating the taste and opinions of readers, and in publicizing anchors and serializing their works.

Q. 2. What were the consequences brought about the First World War?
Ans. The post-war consequences of this most hideous episode in the world’s history are everywhere apparent in Great Britain in widespread unemployment, and demoralizing system of the dole the rise of prohibitive taxes and inheritance dues, the impoverishment of the nobility and aristocracy, the dismemberment of great estates, and the dispersal of such centres of culture as art collections and libraries of rare books and manuscripts. The disillusionment characteristic of much post-war literature can be traced directly to the bitter economic conditions that have resulted from the squandering of the nation’s wealth in the Great War.
Q. 3. What is the impact of’ psychology on modern literature?
Ans. The system of analytical psychology, headed by Freud, Jung, and Adler, seemingly at sword’s points with such a deterministic system as behaviourism, have been equally effective in banishing will and the capacity to control and direct action by finding the foundations of personality and the cause of behaviour in unconscious or subconscious forces over which the individual has little or no control. Psychoanalysis, though more mystical and less logical than behaviourism, has had a parallel effect in its tendency to relieve the individual of responsibility for his acts and to minimize the power of the will
Q. 4. What are the reasons for the dominance of the novel?
Ans. The novel became popular because to a semi-educated modern taste prose fiction was more palatable than poetry, which is a more sophisticated taste, while, by its nature, it is more accessible to the masses than drama. In addition, the novel is admirable suited as a vehicle for the sociological studies which attracted most of the great artists of the period.
Q. 5. Comment upon the rebirth of the drama in the twentieth century.
Ans. After a hundred years of insignificance drama again appears as an important literary form, and the thirty years under review some men of genius, who are also practical experienced men of the theatre, creating a live and significant drama out of the problems of their age. Like the novelists, most of the important dramatists were chiefly concerned with the contemporary social scene, and though, towards the end of the period, there are signs of a revival of poetic-drama, prose is the normal medium.
Q.6. Evaluate the influence of radio and cinema on literature.
Ans. There can be no doubt that the rapid development of two such important media has an enormous impact. In so far as the radio brought literature into the home, in the form of broadcast stories, plays, and literary discussion, and opened up an entirely new field for authors, its influence was for the good. On the other hand, the great quantity and variety of poorer radio entertainment readily accessible for more than two-thirds of each day almost certainly reduced the time devoted to reading. The same may be said of the cinema, which for many people, became the main form of leisure activity, while, in spite of the numerous screen adaptations of novels, it can scarcely be ‘claimed that the cinema has done as much as, the radio to stimulate literary interest. At the same time it must be remembered that film techniques were the basis of a number of experiments in the novel.
Q. 7. Examine the movements and counter movements in the history of contemporary poetry.
Ans. The history of contemporary poetry is the history not only a large number of distinct, if not overpowering, talents, but of a series of movements and counter-movements of a very considerable complexity. The major counter-movement expressed itself in the antithetical directions of muscularity and aestheticism. Coincidental with the War were the, so-called “Georgian” movement, the imagist movement, and the War poetry which attempted to assimilate the catastrophic events of the World War into the individual and social consciousness. The post-war period has, again, been marked by a series of mutually opposed but vigorous counter-movements agreeing in nothing save their hostility to the decadent pastoralism of Georgianism, and their esoteric intellectualism and experimentalism. Of these post-war groups, the Sitwells, Robert Graves, and T.S. Eliot are the energizing nuclei. Somewhat apart from these poetic controversies stand the Irish poets and such traditional and philosophical poets as Robert Bridges, Lascelles Abercrombie, T. Sturge Moore, and Gordon Bottomley.
Q. 8. Narrate the revolt in the nineties against the Tennysonian tradition.
Ans. The revolt in the nineties was a revolt against the deteriorated Tennysonian tradition, and, as in most revolts, the rebles misunderstood or misrepresented the enemy against which they were embattled. What the rebels of the nineties objected to was not the great and noble artistry of Tennyson in his more heroic poem, but the debilitation of that strain through the insidious influence upon him of the more provincial and domestic elements of the Victorian spirit. The perfection with which Tennyson embodies the dominant Victorian spirit seemed, in the eyes of the rebels, a punishable crime.
Q. 9. Who were the exponents of new tendencies in the Nineties of the last century?
Ans. The Indignation aroused by The Yellow Book and The Savoy, the major magazines found by the aesthetes the dismay caused by the conscientious corruption of by its imprisonment in a tremendously difficult Aubrey Beardsley’s evil illustrations, the sensations stirred by the depraved and uncontrolled lives of such men as Wilde and Ernest Dowson won for the works of the aesthetes an excessive depreciation in their own time, and an excessive overvaluation in the first decade of the twentieth century. Their actual contribution to the literature of our time is disappointingly slight.
Q. 10. Discuss Hardy’s poetic art.
                Ans. Hardy’s poetic art is not readily accessible to all readers. Like Browning, although perhaps less consciously, Hardy resorted to crusty and crabbed diction and rhythms, but he was capable of intense lyricism, and his verse technique was a suitable though rough and sturdy garment for his great poetic spirit. Every line that Hardy wrote is touched, intimately or remotely, by the view of life that, common in its essential to all scientific determinists, he made peculiarly has own. And yet, his lyrical writing is varied in mood, from the sardonic humours of his satires of circumstance, terse as condensed novel-plots; to his gay or melancholy love lyrics, and his microscopic studies of nature and sub-human life. Most characteristics, however, are his philosophical lyrics, in which the view of life is stated in abstract terms touched by profound emotion.
Q. 11. Discuss the Irish poetry.
                Ans. Perhaps the finest flowering of the Irish literary renaisance was neither in the drama, nor the novel, but in poetry. The richness of this poetry implies the simultaneous appearance of a large number of talents endowed racially and individually with the gift of song. But the richness was enhanced, on the one hand, by a quickening of imagination due to the resurgent nationalism of southern Ireland, and, on the other, by the revival of medieval Irish literature, the influence of which had hitherto been restricted by its imprisonment in a tremendously difficult and little studies language. But the effects of these influences were unequal in depth and weight, since they operated upon variously gifted individual and creative temperaments and talents.
Q.12. Who is the representative poet of the Irish poetry? Discuss his poetic qualities.
Ans. Both the typical and the individual qualities of the Irish poet can be illustrated in the poetry of its unofficial dean, William Butler Yeats. His individuality is apparent in the constant refinement of his art, in his earnest quest for literary perfection, and in the varieties of avenues, legitimate and illegitimate by which he has attempted to plumb mystical and esoteric experience. The mysticism of Yeats is less accessible to many readers than that of A.E., and often, especially in the middle period of his career, its symbolism is intelligible only to the advanced initiate. But in his more recent work, Yeats’ psychological realism and his insight into the experience and mentality of maturity testify to his rescue from the bogs of spiritualistic and less ‘reputable forms of approach to the mystical vision.
Q. 13. What was the contribution of John Masefield to English poetry?
Ans. Masefield began his work as an innovator tinder the influence of muscularity of Kipling. A born story-teller Masefield has a tremendous zest for life and a broad humanity, and he did much to restore realism to contemporary English poetry. In both narrative and lyric poems his vitality and simple style have a definite appeal, but he rarely touches the deeper levels of human experience, and his verse technique is too often faulty.
Q. 14. What are the chief tendencies of the Georgian poetry?
Ans. There are five significant tendencies of the Georgian poetry. Firstly, a scholarly tradition going back to Milton and the ElizabethAns. refining old themes and forms; secondly, a Catholic movement with affinities to the “Metaphysicals” and other religious poets, often making use of intricate or irregular verse forms and ornate imagery; thirdly, an “aesthetic” tendency owing much to the pre-Raphaelites and attracted to legend and to subtleties of verbal suggestion working often through symbolism and “dim” verbal music, fourthly, a tendency to “realistic” impressionism based on an acceptance, for imaginative purposes, of modern city life and finally, a “naturalistic” reversion to the simple life of country-side, sea and open road.
Q. 15. Discuss the chief poets of the 1914-18 War.
Ans. The first Great War poet was Rupert Brooke whose poetry is essentially that of a young cultured man of leisure. Secondly, Siegfried Sassoon may be said to be the base of nearly all his most worthwhile work. He painted the horrors of life and death in the trenches, dug outs and hospitals and a merciless and calculated realism gave to his work a vitality not previously found in English war poetry. Wilfred Owen was the greatest of the war poets. A gifted artist with a fine feeling for words not a subtle rhythmic sense, Owen was a ceaseless experimenter in verse techniques.
Q. 16. Bring out the salient features of imagist poets.
Ans. The imagist poets launched revolt against the Georgians. Their characteristics were (i) to use the language of common speech but to employ the exact word; (ii) to create new rhythms as the expression of new moods; (iii) to allow absolute freedom in the choice of subject; (iv) to present an image, not vague generalities; (v) to produce poetry that is hard and clear; and (vi) to aim at concentration, since concentration is the very essence of poetry.
Q. 17. Discuss D.H. Lawrence as an imagist poet.
Ans. One of the poets concerned with the early history of the imagist group, D.H. Lawrence has proved the most noteworthy. His energetic response to vitality in flowers and animals, the quivering energy of his representations, the spasmodic and eruptive nature of his emotional ecstasies made the imagistic technique and appropriate medium for his writing. But though Lawrence never succumbed to technical conservatism, he was too mystical, too passionately and destructively critical a nature, to content himself with the limitations of an essentially sensational medium, and his later work, rough and fragmentary as much of it is, a more direct expression of his prophetic denunciation and visiop than his purely imagistic work.
Q. 18. Evaluate poetry in the post-war world.
Ans. The hopes for a brave new world, so quickly dissipated in 1918, gave way to the disillusionment and despair which found their supreme expression in The Waste Land and The Hollow Men: A new awareness of sociological factors enabled the writers of this period to perceive a disintegrating culture with no positive values to replace it. There was need for a new world, for a new outlook on life. As yet a political answer to this problem had not penetrated into poetry to any extent, it did not do so until the appearance of the Auden school.
Q. 19. Discuss the obscurity of modern poetry.
Ans. The obscurity of the modern poetry is due to the popularity of the metaphysical conceits which accompanied the rebirth of interest in Donne and his fellows, the growing use of symbolism under the influence of Yeats and the French symbolists and the imitation of the allusiveness of the early Eliot.
Q. 20. What are T.S. Eliot’s views on the ‘Difficulty’ of Modern Poetry?
Ans. T.S. Eliot’s remarks are momentous to reflect the obscurity of modern-poetry. He has stated: “We can only say that it appears likely that poets in our civilisation, as it exists at present, must be difficult. Our civilisation comprehends great variety and complexity, and this variety and complexity, playing upon a refined sensibility, must produce various and complex results. The post must become inure and more comprehensive, more allusive, more indirect, in order to force to dislocate, if necessary, language into his meaning.”
Q. 21. Discuss T.S. Eliot as an imagist.
Ans. A close study of Eliot’s imagery is essential to any comprehension of his work. Like the Imagists, he is always concrete, and his pictures are clearly realized and based on close and accurate observation. Many images, such as those of the sea, appear time and again with different effects, and in Four Quartets the development of the poem can best be traced in the changing significance of recurrent images. Eliot shows a particular fondness for the metaphysical conceit with its blend of emotion and intellect.
Q. 22. Evaluate T.S. Eliot’s influence on W.H. Auden.
Ans. As the leader of the poets of the thirties, Auden is of considerable importance. He came under the influence of Hopkins and, like the latter, he was deeply aware of the hollowness of the disintegrating post War civilization. But, unlike Eliot, Auden found his solution to the world’s problems in left wing political ideologies.
Q. 23. Appreciate the important poems of T.S. Eliot.
Ans. The chief poetical works of T.S. Eliot are Prufrock and other Observations, The Waste Land, Ash Wednesday and Four Quartets. firstly, Prufrock and Other Observations portrays in contemptuous, and often wittily ironical, satire the boredom, emptiness and pessimism of its own day. The Waste Land is difficult to understand in detail. The poem is built round the symbols of drought and blood, representing death and rebirth. His next major work, Ash Wednesday, is probably his most difficult. It marks the beginning of a new phase in the poet’s development, in which he finds hope in the discipline of the Christian religion. In Four Quarters, we become aware of the intensity of Eliot’s search for religious truth, which leads finally to a new hope in the Christian idea of rebirth and renewal.
Q. 24. What is the keynote of the inter-war poetry? Explain its significance.
Ans. The picture of the inter-war years is one of continued uncertainty and experiment. Auden’s collection of poems entitled The age of Anxiety indicates the correct condition of political works. There was still no strongly established tradition to compare instability with that of the Victorian age. Thus there was the quest for stability and various attempts were being made to eradicate the inherent evils in the civilization. The poets were making efforts to find out a solution to the problems of a perplexed generation.
Q. 25. How will you define the Problem Play?
Ans. The Problem Play is a term applied to the kind of play which treats of a particular social or moral problem so as to make people think intelligently about it. It is usually somewhat tragic in tone in that it naturally deals with painful human dilemmas. It is a kind of play that, by implication, asks a definite question and either supplies an answer or leaves it to us to find one.
Q. 26. Who are the chief problem playwrights?
Ans. The chief problem playwrights are T.W. Robertson, Henry Arthur Jones, Sir A.W. Pinoro and John Galsworthy.
Q. 27. Discuss John Galsworthy as a problem playwright.
Ans. Galsworthy was a social reformer, objectively and impartially posting a problem, showing always both sides of the question, and leaving his audience to think out the answer: His chief protagonists are usually social forces in conflict with each other, and the human figures in his drama, though real enough and very true to ordinary life are studied more as products of these forces than an individuals who are of interest for their own sake.
Q. 28. What are the chief Problem Plays of John Galsworth?
Ans. Of his best-known plays The Silver Box deals with the inequality of justice. Strife with the struggle between Capital and Labour, Justice with the cruelty of solitary confinement, The Skin Game with the different values of the old aristocracy and the newly rich businessman, Loyalties with class loyalties and prejudices, and Escape with the inadequacy of the administration of justice and the attitude of different types of people toward an escaped prisoner.
Q. 29. Discuss John Galsworthy’s ‘The Silver Box’.
Ans. The Silver Box deals with the old adage that there is one law for the rich and another for the poor and how the power of wealth diverts the course of justice.
Q. 30. Evaluate Galsworthy’s ‘Justice’.
Ans. Justice is a propaganda and seems to have been conceived in an ecstasy of rage against human oppression. The hero is not unjustly imprisoned because in four mad moments he altered the figure of a cheque. In this play the real criminal is not the forgerer but civilized society and its prison system.
Q. 31. Discuss John Galsworthy’s ‘Strife’.
Ans. Strife depicts the conflicts of capitalists class struggling against the forces of labour. The story is of a strike in a tin-plate factory. The workers, their women and children have to endure the greatest privations through cold and hunger. Stubborn obstinacy of the two leaders—of men and the directors—prolongs the conflict as each refuses to give way. Strife ends with waste lives and a settlement the terms of which are precisely the same as those proposed at the beginning of the struggle.
Q. 32. Discuss John Galsworthy’s ‘Loyalties’ as a social drama.
Ans. Loyalties is a social drama in which characters are arranged in two different groups. One set of persons is presented as loyal to their principles in life, and on the other side we find a single person, a rich Jew, ready to face them all, and maintaining his own position and upholding the honour of his race against the insults of Englishmen. The theme of the drama was perhaps suggested by Edith Cavell’s saying: “patriotism is not enough, must have no hatred in my heart for any one.”
Q. 33. What are the general features of Galsworthy’s plays?
Ans. All the plays of Galsworthy exhibit the same features—the omnipresence of a fundamental social problem expressed in a severely natural manner, without straining of situations or exaggeration of final issues, a corresponding naturalism of dialogue, leading at times to an apparent ordinariness, a native kindness of heart added to the sternness of the true-tragic artist, and a complete absence of sentimentalism even when pitiful scenes are introduced.
Q. 34. Discuss G.B. Shaw’s ‘St. Joan’.
Ans. Shaw’s St. Joan gives a picture of the life of a simple rustic girl who was later on canonised as a saint. The first scene of the play deals with the way in which the simple girl succeeded in winning her way into the presence of a captain and how the success she achieved in this attempt paved the way for her ultimate success. The life object of Joan was to drive away the English from her native land and this she was able to achieve to a tolerable extent. Another thing in which she was completely successful was in her object and ambition of crowning the Dauphin the King of France in the Cathedral at Rheims. All this was not achieved without difficulty. Here was not a simple task that anyone can achieve. In addition to the difficulties that might have been met by others attempting the same task, her difficulties were made greater by the fact that she was a woman.
Q. 35. Comment upon G.B. Shaw’s ‘Pygmalion’.
Ans. Pygmalion is the name of legendary king of Cyprus. Shaw has used the word as his title-piece with a certain mixture of humour and irony which is on the whole amusing. Pygmalion achieved a miracle of art an e through his divine gift as a sculptor, animating the inanimate. In like manner, Professor Higgins is the Pygmalion of the play, since he achieves the seeming miracle of making an illiterate uncultured and low-born and bred girl to play the part of a duchess. But when it is taken along with the explanatory and argumentative material furnished by Shaw in his preface and postscript, we see what the aim or point of the propagandist side of his work is. He pleaded for a rationalisation of the English alphabet so that it could contain all the basic phonetic sounds required for a full and complete representation of the language. He next sought to evolve a phonetic script which would be precise and which would do away with the anomalies, crudities and inconsistencies that have rendered English spelling the despair of all.
Q. 36. Evaluate Bernard Shaw’s ‘Candida’.
Ans. Candida is one of the earliest plays written by Shaw. During his time and after him, there have been many writers who have written “plays based on what is popularly known as. “The Eternal Triangle”. Here the situation or plot is that two men are generally made to love one woman. Sometimes this woman would be the wife of one of the men, as in Candida. The plot will develop a love affair between the woman and the ‘other man’. The story will then run through a number of intriguing situations still the climax is reached with the repentance of the woman or with the woman being turned out of the house in a miserable condition, for her sin. The same plot was taken by Shaw, but he modified this theme to suit his ideas and principles. But in doing so, apart from the characterisation, he did not succeed to any great extent.
Q. 37. Bring out the chief characteristics in G.B. Shaw’s ‘The Doctor’s Dilemma’.
Ans. In the simple story can be found all the intensity of a play of emotions. Shaw has successfully portrayed the characters of Ridgeon, the Dubedats and Blenkinsop. In contrasting the characters of Dr, Blenkinsop and Dubedat, Shaw has posed the.problem for the doctor. These for characters are responsible both for creating and resolving the problem. The resolution, however, is brought about in a tragic manner by the death of the artist. The tragedy becomes all the more intense and painful because it would have been avoided. But Dr. Ridgeon’s susceptibility to’ female charm is responsible in a way for the tragedy. Dubedat also should bear part of the blame, because his unscrupulousness turned the doctors against him.
Q. 38. Give a critical appraisal of G.B. Shaw’s ‘The Apple Cart’.
Ans. The story of The Apple Cart is in the main an account of the struggle of two minds, King Magnus and Proteus, the Prime Minister. But there is also in the play a reference to the position of democracy in the modern world. Some point out that the play is a blasphemy against Democracy. Shaw as a socialist had always been a supporter of Democratic ideals. In this play, he is considered to have betrayed Democracy and gone over to the side of the Royalists. The story describes how King Magnus outwits the Cabinet consisting of popularly elected representatives. Pointing out to this victory of the king over his Cabinet, people say that Shaw had supported the king, it may be seen that the king’s idea but consummation of the democratic ideal. If he had been allowed to abdicate and get elected to the House of Commons, he would have acted only .on principles followed by Democrats.
Q. 39. What is Bernard Shaw’s place in the literary world?
Ans. For more than a century, much had not been contributed by literary men to the English drama and it was ‘left to Shaw to contribute the largest share to it. The interest that was commanded by poetry was also found once again in drama with the period of Shaw’s contributions to it. Shaw’s plays provided food for the intellect and not merely to the senses. Even those plays of his that were at first condemned were found to be of real merit later on. Those who had been his detractors changed their views about him. Whatever may be said of him either by way of criticism of particular plays or by way of praise it must be admitted that in his best work he had added to the gaiety of thinking and extended the range of rational employment.
Q. 40. Compare Bernard Shaw with Swift as a satirist.
Ans. Sometimes Shaw is compared to Swift in his handing of satire. As one critic has pointed out, there is not in Swift that delicacy or the felicity that are found in the style of Shaw. His is the fire that does not burn and one that affords light and heat that eomforts. Description of beauty is a rare commodity in his writing.
Q. 41. What are the basic ideas of Bernard Shaw’s plays?
Ans. Shaw’s fundamental aim in his drama was the bettering of the lot of humanity. Scoffing at the romantic views of life, he examined man and his social institutions with intellectual courage and shrewd, irrevelent insight. Slum landlords, prostitution, marriage conventions, social prejudices, the romanticized soldier, the glamorous historical figures; the medical profession, the critics, religion—these are but some of the people and things which came tinder the microscope of his rationalism. His earliest work was emphatically socialist and socialism.
Q. 42. What was Bernard Shaw’s contribution to English drama?
Ans. Shaw’s name is indissolubly linked with the new drama of this century. It is new chiefly because it converted the stage into a forum or pulpit or a debating society. Action was not so important as the discussion of ideas, which are at the bottom of men’s faiths’ and convictions. In this earlier era, the stage was generally considered as a place where one went for a couple of hours of entertainment, when people could forget their private worries and cares in contemplating a romantic world, dazzling people and pleasant scenes or stirring incidents. In short, the old theatre afforded an excellent opportunity to people to escape from themselves and from the drab dullness of their lives.
Q. 43. Which play of G.B. Shaw do you like most and why?
Ans. Man and Superman is the most important play of Shaw which deals half-seriously; half-comically with woman’s pursuit of her mate. The play is Shaw’s first statement of his idea of the Life Force working through human beings toward perfection, and this, he feels here, can be reached only by the selective breeding which will eventually produce the superman. The play is unconventional in its construction, especially in the third act entitled “Don Juan in Hell”, but it is a fine drama and contains three notable characters in Ann Whitefield, John Tanner, and Henry Straker.
Q. 44. Discuss the rise of the Poetic Drama.
Ans. The revival of poetic drama is the development of the inter-War period which illustrates the dissatisfaction with realism and the tradition of naturalistic prose dialogue. Experiments in verse drama were made by a number of eminent poets, but their success on the commercial stage was very limited though the plays of T.S. Eliot have attracted considerable attention.
Q. 45. Comment upon the decline of Realism in modern drama.
Ans. From 1890 to 1920 the pursuit of realism and naturalism had dominated the work of most of the important English dramatists, though for Synge and, Shaw mere realism had always been inadequate. By 1920 Yeats’ dissatisfaction with that drama which was objectively an accurate portrayal of the surface of life was, felt by the theatre-going public as a whole.
Q. 46. What are the chief dramas of T.S. Eliot?
Ans. The chief dramas of T.S. Eliot are; Sweeney Agonistes, The Rock, Murder in the Cathedral, The Family Reunion, The Cocktail Party and The Confidential Clerk.
Q. 47. Discuss Eliot’s ‘Murder in the Cathedral’.
Ans. In Murder in the Cathedral the real drama is to be found in the moving speeches of the Chorus of the women of Canterbury, in whom a profoundly felt change does take place, but again there is no real conflict and a complete lack of action.
Q. 48. Who are the chief poetic dramatists in the modern literature?
Ans. T.S. Eliot, James Elroy Flecker, John Masefield, Lascelles Abercrombie, Gordon Bottomley, A.H. Auden, Christopher Isherwood and O’Casey.
Q. 49. Elaborate the reasons for the dominance of the novel in the twentieth century.
Ans. In the period under review the novel for the first time gains an undoubted ascendancy over all other literacy forms, an ascendancy it has maintained until very recent years. Its growing importance has been accompanied by serious study of the art of the novelists, and from a technical point of view, the progress of the last sixty years is unequalled in all its previous history.
Q. 50. Discuss the Novel of’ Ideas and Social Purpose in the modern age.
Ans. To Hardy the aim of the novel was the interpretation of life through a picture of human existence so presented that from it could be gathered the philosophy when the another wished to propagate. By overweighing his case he impairs the quality of his work, whereas Conard, who was more of an artist and less intense about his philosophy, is able to ‘interpret’ life without any sacrifice of art. Closely allied to this view of the novel is that adopted by Butler, Wells, and Galsworthy, who saw it as a means of social propaganda, a medium for the dissemination of their ideas on such contemporary problems as religion, shifting social values, and family life.
Q. 51. Who are the chief short-story writers of the modern age?
Ans. Of the major novelists, Hardy, Bennett, Conard, Gissing, Kipling, Wells, and Moore all used this medium with success, and Henry James is perhaps the greatest short-story writer in English.
Q. 52. Discuss the influence of psychology on the modern novel.
Ans. Before the War the rapid development of the science of psychology and already done much to deepen and enrich the study of human character in the novel, but its full impact was not felt until the inter-War period, when the works of Sigmund Freud became a handbook for all interested in the study of personality.
Q. 53. Give a critical appraisal of Virginia Woolf’s technique of novel.
Ans. She rejected the conventional conception to the novel. She did not emphasize on incident, external description, and straight-forward narrative by an overriding concern with character presentation by the stream of consciousness.
Q. 54. Discuss the technique of novel of James Joyce.
Ans. James Joyce as a ceaseless experimenter, ever anxious to explore the potentialties of a method once it was evolved, and in the use of the ‘stream of consciousness’ technique, and in his handling of the internal monologue, he went Further and deeper than any other. His sensitiveness, his depth of penetration into the human consciousness, give to any character study a subtlety unparalleled in his day, and if, in his attempts to catch delicate and elusive shades of feeling and flit them in words, he has frequently become incomprehensible, the fact remains that a character like Leopold Bloom is a unique and fascinating creation.

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