English Adverb Clause

English Adverb Clause
            An Adverb Clause does the work of an Adverb. It modifies a verb, adjective or an adverb. Subordinate Conjunctions introduces Adverb Clauses:
            I shall be rightly glad if you come.
            He is limping because he has hurt his foot.
            Wait here till I come back.
            Although he worked hard, yet he failed.

An Adverb Clause can modify:
1.       A Verb:
            He was shocked when he heard the sad news.
2.       An Adverb:
            My fried worked so hard that he topped the examination.
3.       An Adjective:
            He was sucha cruel man that he killed all.
Kinds of the Adverb Clauses:
      (i)   Time                       (ii) Place                (iii) Purpose
      (iv)  Cause or Reason     (v)            Condition         (vi) Effect or Result       (vii) Comparison                 (viii)  Manner      (ix) Extent/Proportion
      (x) Concession or Contrast.
(i)   An Adverb Clause of Time is introduced by ‘when, while, before, after, since as soon as, whenever, till until, as long as, so long as’ etc.:
                  The officership begins when others open the door for you.
                  I sang while she danced.
                  He had reached there before you came.
                  The doctor reached after the patient had died.
                  As the hot air cools, the balloon comes down.
                  I have not heard from you since you left this place.
(ii)  An Adverb Clause of Place is introduced by ‘where, wherever, whence, whither, etc.
                  I live where you live.
                  Go wherever you like.
                  He went whence he came.
                  The ship sailed whither the wind took her.
(iii) An Adverb Clause of Purpose is introduced by ‘that, so that, lest, in order that’ etc.:
                  He died that the nation might live.
                  I ran fast so that I might catch the train.
                  Walk carefully lest you should fall down.
                  She worked hard in order that she might win a scholarship.
(iv) An Adverb Clause of Cause or Reason is introduced by ‘because, as, since, that, now that’ etc.
                  He cannot understand it, because he is dull.
                  Since you stand surety for him, I let him go.
                  I regret that I could not keep my word.
                  Now that the rain has stopped, we should move on.
            ‘As’ is put in the beginning of the sentence when it is used in the sense of ‘since’ or ‘because’.
                  As I was busy, I could not write to you earlier.
(v)  An Adverb Clause of Condition is introduced by ‘if whether, provided, unless, in case, supposing’ etc:
                  If religion is set at naught, man will be lost.
                  He must go there whether he likes it or not.
                  I shall let you go provided you speak the truth.
                  She cannot pass unless she works hard.
                  In case you do not turn up in time, you shall be punished.
                  When you tell lies, how can your children speak the truth.
(vi) An Adverb Clause of Effect or Result is introduced by ‘so …….. that, such …….that’ etc.
                  He is so poor that he cannot buy books.
                  He is so old that he can hardly walk.
                  You behaved in such a way that we were disappointed.
(vii)      An Adverb Clause of Comparison is introduced by ‘as …… as, so ….. as, as much as, so much as, no less than, than’ etc. In such a clause the verb is generally understood:
                  She is as beautiful as her sister (is).
                  You are not so tall as your brother (is).
                  You may take as much milk as you like.
                  Getting money from a miser is like getting honey from a stone.
                  I like you no less than (I like) her.
                  He cam later than I (came). (here you can write ‘me’ also)
Note: We use ‘so ….. as’ only in negative sentences. We use ‘as ….. as’ in both affirmative and negative sentences. ‘Like’ is followed by a gerund.
(viii)     An Adverb Clause of Manner is introduced by ‘as, as though, as if, according as’ etc.:
                  Do unto others as you would be done by.
                  He talks as if he were mad.
                  You are as much at fault as your brother 9is).
                  They did according as they were told.
(ix) An Adverb Clause of Extent or Proportion is introduced by ‘as far as, so far as’ etc.:
                  As far as I think, he will not betray you.
                  So far as I know, he is correct.
                  The higher you go, the cooler it is.
(x)  An Adverb Clause showing Concession or Contrast is introduced by ‘though, although, as, however, even if, even though, no matter, whoever, all the same, whatever’ etc.:
            Although he was ill, yet he attended the school.
            Poor as he is, he is honest.

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