English Clauses

English Clauses
            A clause is a group of words which has a finite verb. Clauses are of different kinds:-
      1.         Noun Clauses
      2.         Adverb Clauses
            3.         Adjective Clauses

Noun Clauses:
            A noun clause does the work of a noun and always answers the question “What?” It is a group of words containing a subject and a predicate. It depends on the Principal Clause for its full meaning.
The verbs like believe, discover, explain, expect, hear, hope, know, notice, seem, sug­gest and think are followed by Noun Clauses beginning with ‘that’.
Please note that the use of ‘that’ is optional.
                        I believe (that) Saira is hard working.
                        The police discovered (that) the theft was committed in the afternoon.
          Haris explained (that) he had done nothing wrong.
          I expect (that) she will visit my house.
          Have you heard (that) Rehana has won a prize.
          I hoped (that) he would help me.
          I knew (that) you are in the wrong.
          She noticed (that) her classmates had stolen her purse.
          It seems (that) it would rain tonight.
          He suggested (that) I should engage a tutor.
          I think (that) you are a true friend.
A Noun Clause may be:
            (a) Subject to a Verb; as
                     That God speaks through the Panch is true.
                     Why he came here secretly is known to me.
                     What works for dogs may not work for human beings.
                     How he got so much wealth is still a secret.
            (b) Object to a Finite Verb; as
                     I know why you are late.
                     Tell me where your father lives.
                     He said that honesty is the best policy.
                     She asked me if I would stay with her.
          (c) Complement to a Verb; as
                     This is what he told me.
                     He found that the priest was kneeling at the altar.
                      seems that it will rain today.
                     Everybody felt that his end was near.
         (d) Object to a Preposition; as
                     Listen to what I say.
                     Don’t long for what you cannot have.
                     I am surprised at what he has done.
                     I don’t believe in what you say.
           (e) Object to a Participle; as
      Thinking that he would be in his office, I went to see him there.            Fearing that the lion would kill him, he began to tremble.
      Seeing that the bear had gone far, he climbed down the tree.
           (f) Object to an Infinitive; as
                      I am pleased to learn that God has blessed you with a son.
                      He was shocked to read that his friend had breathed his last.
                      I want to know whether you have passed.
          (g) In Apposition to a Noun or a Pronoun; as
      The saying that honesty pays in the long run is true.
      I have a feeling that we are on the wrong track.
      Then came the news that Maxim Gorky, the great Russian writer, was dead.
           (h) Complement to an Adjective; as
            It is certain that honesty pays in the long run.
            He is definite that he will win a prize.
            You are sure that you will pass.
            I am confident that she will stand first.
         (i) Object to a Gerund; as
                     She is in the habit of cursing whoever teases her.
                     The old man believes in eating whatever he gets.

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