(adjective) Able, confident, skilled. For example: ‘I sometimes feel I am not capable of writing my university essays in English, it is quite difficult for me.’
(noun) Size, volume. For example: ‘The class is full to capacity so I will have to wait and enroll in a new class next month.’
(noun) The penalty of death for a crime
A division or class of something. For example: There are several categories of cars – family cars, sports cars, 4 wheel drives…
(noun) The reason something happens. Example: ‘The cause of rising sea levels is the melting of polar ice’.
(verb) Stop, end, finish. For example: ‘He has been made redundant and his employment contract will officially cease on July 21st.’
(noun) Someone very well known; a public figure. ‘Many celebrities, such as Tom Cruise, are photographed wherever they go.’
(adjective) Controlled by a country’s government, not by local governments.
(noun) No doubt; sure. Example: ‘It is a certainty that the world’s population will increase.’
(verb) To argue against an opinion. Example: ‘In IELTS writing, you may need to challenge an opinion by giving a different point of view’.
(noun) A difficult situation. Example: ‘Studying in a second language can be a challenge for many students’.
(adjective) Difficult, not easy. Example: ‘It can be challenging for international students to study at university in a second language’.
(verb) Direct, guide, feed. For example: ‘The Government promises to channel more funds into fighting crime if they win the next election.’
(noun) Section, part of a book. For example: ‘The information we learned today in the lecture is found in more detail in chapter 10 of the textbook.’
(noun) How someone behaves / thinks / acts. Example: ‘He has a very friendly, approachable character.’
(noun) graph, table, diagram. For example: ‘It was clear from the bar chart that sales had risen in the period January-April.’
(noun) Substance, element, compound. For example: ‘There are many harmful chemicals in cigarette smoke.’
(noun) Situation, event. For example: ‘It should depend on the individual circumstances of the crime, as to whether the death penalty is implemented.’
(verb) Situation, event. For example: ‘It is important to cite the name of the author you have used information from in academic writing for university.’
(adjective) Related to individuals and the general public. For example: ‘Civil rights allow the right to privacy in most countries.’
(adjective) Having a high state of culture, technology or society. Example: ‘Many ancient cultures, such as the Egyptians and the Aztecs, were highly civilised.’
(noun) Something stated as fact, though not necessarily proven. Example: ‘His claims have been ignored by the government’.
(verb) Explain, make clear. For example: ‘The instructions given on the examination paper were not clear so we asked the invigilator to clarify what we had to do.’
(adjective) Typical. For example: ‘A classic example of discrimination is lower pay for women.’
(verb) To put into a group or category. Example: ‘Humans are classified as mammals. Sharks are classified as fish’.
(noun) Rule, regulation. For example: ‘Knowledge of the highway code is tested in the driving test in a theory exam.’
(noun) Able to be understood. Example: ‘An essay needs to show coherence; that is, a logical flow of ideas’. See also COHERENT
(adjective) Logical, reasoned. For example: ‘In order to gain good marks it is important to write an essay which has good ideas and is coherent.’
(noun) Joining ideas together. Example: ‘A good essay will be easy to understand because of its cohesion’
(verb) Happen togther, match, overlap. For example: ‘The date for my IELTS exam coincided with my college exams so I did not have enough time to study properly as I had too much to do.’
(verb) Give way, fail, come to nothing. For example: ‘The ideas and proposal for the new business development collapsed when it became clear that necessary funding was not available.’
(noun) Co-worker. For example: ‘Having supportive colleagues in the workplace is very important’
(adjective) Local and informal language. Example: ‘Mate’ means ‘friend in many English speaking countries’.
SLANG (noun) Words used informally, often by particular groups.
(noun) When two or more things are put together. Example: ‘Some IELTS questions will require you to use a combination of skills and abilities’.
(adjective) Calm, relaxed, at ease. Example: ‘It is important to show the examiner that you are comfortable speaking English during your IELTS test’.
(verb) Start, begin. For example: ‘The new university semester commences on February 25th and all new students need to enroll the week before.’
(verb) Say in passing, mention, point out. For example: ‘My teacher commented that my English has improved a lot in the last two months when I spoke with her the other day. ‘
(verb) Appoint, authorise. For example: ‘ In many people’s opinion artworks commissioned by the Council, are an example of money badly spent as there are more important projects to spend money on.’
(verb) Pledge. For example: ‘Although the Government said, during the last election that it was committed to reducing crime rates there has been an increase in violent crime in the last three years.’
(noun) Product, good or service. For example: ‘Electronic commodities such as computers and equipment have fallen dramatically in price since their introduction to the market.’
#1 – Similar, shared. Example: ‘It is beneficial if husbands and wives have common interests’.
#2 – Usual, regularly occuring. Example: ‘It is common for language learners to make grammar mistakes’.
To give or exchange thoughts, ideas or opinions.
(noun) A group of people in society. For example: ‘Over recent years local communities have become more concerned about increase in crime in their areas.’
(grammar term) The form of an adjective used for comparing. Example: tall > taller
(noun) When something is compared to something else. Example: ‘There have been comparisons made between the landscape of New Zealand and Norway’.
(adjective) Well-matched, like-minded. For example: ‘It is important for employers to employ the most suitable person for a job and that the employee’s personality is compatible with the position being offered.’
(verb) Balance, make up for. For example: ‘Nowadays some parents try to compensate for having little time to spend with their children by giving them too many material things such as toys and games.’
(verb) List, compose, record. For example: ‘Before I go to the library I need to compile a list of information I need to look for while I am there.’
(verb) To say that you are not satisfied or happy with something or someone. Example: ‘The customer complained about the poor service’.
(noun) = Complaint
(verb) Add to, accompany. For example: ‘Following a healthy diet and taking regular exercise complement each other well to create a healthy lifestyle..’
(adjective) Not simple, involved, difficult. For example: ‘Arguments in support of, and against the death penalty need to be considered carefully, as the subject is extremely complex.’
(adjective) Difficult, intricate. Example: ‘Mathematics studied at university level is complicated’.
(noun) Part, piece. For example: ‘Tom has the ability to fix my computer but is unsure if he can find the correct components he needs to sort out the problem.’
(verb) Add to, increase (a negative situation). For example: ‘Governments should invest more money into public health care as lack of funds only compound the problem hospitals are facing.’
(adjective) Wide-ranging, thorough. For example: ‘Hospitals should provide comprehensive information booklets so that patients will know what to expect when they have an operation.’
(verb) Include, contain, thorough. For example: ‘Australia comprises several states including the A.C.T. which contains Canberra.’
(adjective). Essential, must be done, no choice. Example: ‘It is compulsory to have a passport when travelling overseas’.
(verb) Visualise, imagine, think of. For example: ‘It is difficult for us to conceive the long term environmental impact of our actions now. ‘
(verb) Focus, think. For example: ‘It is important to concentrate when revising for exams, study some where quietly and switch of all distractions including radios and TV.’
(noun) Idea, theory. For example: ‘I am learning about Marketing concepts in my class this week, it is interesting to find out about so many different theories.’
(noun) An acknowledgment or admission that there are opinions different to your own. Example: ‘It is important to add a concession to your Task II essay to show that you can consider other opinions’.
(verb) End, finish, bring to a close. For example: ‘Before concluding the meeting the CEO thanked us for attending and for our input.’
(adjective). Real, not theoretical or abstract. Example: ‘A concrete example’
(noun) A substance that is mixed with sand and water to create a solid material used in building.
(adjective) Same time, simultaneous. For example: ‘The country’s army had no time to respond due to the concurrent attacks by sea, land and air.’
(grammar term) A sentence that has an ‘if’ statement – can be zero, 1st, 2nd, 3rd or mixed). Example: ‘If students study hard, they have a better chance of success’. (This is a zero conditional clause)
(noun) Behaviour, ways, manner. For example: ‘The high standard of conduct expected of children at the school is important in helping them learn lessons for later in life.’
(verb) Consult, discuss. For example: ‘Education institutions should confer more with parents to discuss solutions to the growing problem of children missing school.’
(adjective) Having no doubts; to be sure; being self-assured. Example: ‘It is important to appear confident in an interview situation’.
(verb) Constrict, limit. For example: ‘A number of countries are now confining cigarette smoking to outside areas only in public places.’
(verb) Check, verify. For example: ‘It is shop owners’ responsibility to confirm their customers are old enough to buy cigarettes by asking them to provide identification.’
(noun) CONFIRMATION Example: ‘A confirmation has been made for the booking next month’.
(adjective) Differing, opposite. For example: ‘There are a number of conflicting opinions on whether technology has improved or reduced quality of life.’
(verb) Fit in with, follow rules of conduct, match. For example: ‘Younger people nowadays find it difficult to conform to the rules of society.’
(adjective) The state of being argumentative or in opposition. Example: ‘Some teenagers can become confrontational when talking to their parents’.
(verb) To mix up, to not understand correctly. Example: “It can be easy to confuse tenses in English grammar’.
(verb) To link, to join. Example: ‘In English, you can connect ideas with linking words’.
(noun) Compulsory recruitment into the military. Example: ‘Many countries still have conscription’.
(adjective) Resulting, following. For example: ‘A number of people were concerned about the change in government policy and the consequent protests were no surprise.’
(verb) Think carefully about. Example: ‘You need to consider possible synonyms for keywords before scanning the reading passage for the answer’.
(adjective) Large, sizeable, substantial. For example: ‘A recent survey showed that a considerable number of parents have little knowledge regarding the signs of drug use.’
(verb) Be made up of. For example: ‘The main basis of his argument consisted of the facts and figures he had direct from the survey.’
(noun). Letters in the alphabet that are not a,e,i,o or u.
Some words can begin with a vowel but have a consonant sound. Example: university (yoo-ni-ver-si-ty), uniform (yoo-ni-form).
(adjective) Continual, endless. For example: ‘There have been constant problems since the new policy has been introduced.’
(noun phrase) Parts or ingredients that together make a whole. Example: ‘There are many constituent parts to a car engine’.
(verb) Comprise, make up, form. For example: ‘The research I have collected constitutes a very good basis for my assignment.’
(verb) Limit, restrict, hinder. For example: ‘In order to constrain the increasing use of illegal drugs, stricter penalties should be introduced.’
(verb) Build, put together, make. For example: ‘It is important to construct a solid argument for your essay and making notes beforehand helps enormously.’
(verb) Ask, check with. For example: ‘It is important for patients to consult their doctor before taking any additional medication.’
1. to expend by use; use up. ‘Cities consume a high percentage of a country’s energy, due to the high populations living there.’
2. to eat or drink up; devour. ‘Many people consume a great deal of junk food ona regular basis.’
3. to destroy, as by decomposition or burning: Fire consumed the forest.
4. to spend (money, time, etc.) wastefully.
5. to absorb; engross: consumed with curiosity.
(verb). Write to/speak to, get in touch with. Example: ‘It is the school’s responsibility to contact parents of children they suspect are taking drugs.’
(verb) To include, to hold within. Example: ‘The IELTS reading and listening tests both contain 40 questions.’
(adjective). Modern. Example: ‘In my opinion contemporary novels are more interesting and true to life than classic literature.’
(noun). Perspective, background. Example: ‘A good essay will put all ideas and arguments into a clear context.’
Groups of countries; large masses of land. For example: Europe, Asia
(noun). Written and signed agreement, legally binding document. Example: ‘An employment contract protects the rights of both employer and employee.’
(verb). Disagree with, challenge the view of, oppose. Example: ‘The findings in the new research project contradict those from the earlier survey.’
(adjective). Opposite. Example: ‘There are many contrary opinions to this view.’
CONTRARY (On the contrary):
(noun). Opposite. Example: ‘Sensible exercise has no ill effects on the body; on the contrary it brings enormous benefits.’
(noun). Difference, strong dissimilarity. Example: ‘There is enormous contrast between the landscapes of the two countries.’
(verb). Add, give. Example: ‘Older workers in the work force are important as they contribute their experience, wisdom and patience.’
(adjective) Arguable, disputable, likely to cause disagreement. Example: ‘The government’s decision to reduce funding of public healthcare was controversial.’
(noun). Arguement, disagreement. Example: ‘A decision to fine parents of children who are not attending school would cause a huge amount of controversy.’
(verb). Come together, assemble. Example: ‘United Nations representatives will convene in Europe next month.’
(adjective) Following accepted customs and traditions. Example: ‘In western countries, it is conventional for the bride to wear a white dress on her wedding day.’
(verb). Change, alter from one use or purpose to another. Example: ‘In many parts of the world forest land has been converted to agricultural land and this has impacted on the environment.’
(verb). Persuade, encourage another to believe a point of view. Example: ‘It has been difficult to convince the general public of the dangers related to this.’
(verb) Work together. For example: ‘It is important for Governments of different countries to cooperate together to find a solution to global warming.’
(verb) Organise, bring together. For example: ‘The conference will require a huge amount of organisation so the company has appointed an Events Manager to coordinate the project.’
(adjective) Central, main. For example: ‘The company is involved in many different areas of business but its core business is computer software.’
(noun phrase) Physical punishment. Example: ‘Corporal punishment, such as caning, is now banned in many schools.’
(adjective) Business or company related, commercial. For example: ‘It is relatively easy to find out information at companies these days as on the web there are numerous sites holding corporate information.’
(noun) A connection or link between things. Example: ‘There is a correlation between healthy living and lifespan’.
(verb) Match, match up to, relate to. For example: ‘The findings from this research project correspond with those from earlier studies.’
(noun) Equal, equivalent. Example: ‘A prime minister is the counterpart of a president’.
(verb) Combine, link, join. For example: ‘Rising unemployment amongst graduates coupled with increasing costs to study at university have resulted in the decreasing enrolments into university programmes.’
(verb) Make, invent, produce, generate. For example: ‘The arrival of the new factory has created a number of job opportunities for local people.’
(noun) Praise, recognition, acclaim. For example: ‘Nursing staff are often not given enough credit for the difficult job they perform.’
(noun) Condition related to a situation. For example: ‘The successful candidate for the job must meet all the criteria laid down in the job description.’
(adjective) essential, necessary, vital. For example: ‘It is crucial that governments provide good education opportunities for teenagers to ensure a successful future for the country.’
(noun) The state of being guilty of doing something. ‘He is culpable for the damage his children caused.’
(noun) Society, traditon, customs, way of life. For example: ‘It is an important education for people to experience different cultures as it allows them the opportunity to better understand people from countries different to their own.’
(noun) Treatment, solution. Example: ‘Many people are searching for a cure for the common cold’.
(noun) Money, exchange. For example: ‘Currency exchange in Europe is no longer an issue as the majority of countries use the Euro.’
(noun) Series, sequence. For example: ‘Students may be required to describe a process for Task 1 of the writing exam, for example the Water Cycle which describes the journey of water from land to sky and back again.’