(adjective) Of the greatest size or significance. For example: ‘Finding a solution to this problem is of ultimate importance.’
(adjective) Not having an acceptable standard of living. Example: ‘Many charities provide toys for under-privileged children’.
(verb) Be the basis of. For example: ‘There are several reasons which underlie the changes.’
(verb) To weaken, to cause to collapse. Example: ‘You can undermine an opposing point of view by identifying its weaknesses’.
(verb) Commit to, take on. For example: ‘At a wedding ceremony the bride and groom undertake to support each other for the rest of their lives.’
(adjective) The same, equal, very similar. Example: ‘Fast food chains attempt to offer a uniform standard of service across all their sites.’
(noun) A specific set of clothes for a job. For example: a nurse’s uniform, a soldier’s uniform
(adjective) Only one of its kind, special. For example: ‘The company says that it offers unique work opportunities to its employees.’
(noun) Agreement, harmony. For example: ‘It is important there is unity of purpose in order to solve this problem.’
(adjective) Without principles, morals or ethics. Example: ‘It is unscrupulous for companies to exploit child labour.’ See ETHICS.
(verb) Use, use up. For example: ‘Energy-saving light bulbs utilise less electricity than regular ones.’
(adjective) Legitimate, justifiable. For example: ‘Being late is not a valid excuse for speeding.’
(noun) Alternative, different version of something. Example: ‘There are many variations of multiple choice questions in the IELTS test – short answer, long answer etc…’
(verb) differ, show differences. For example: ‘Opinions vary on this subject.’
(noun) motorised form of transport. For example: ‘It is irresponsible and dangerous to be in charge of a vehicle while under the influence of alcohol.’
A verb is an action word. Example: run, expect, hope, demand
(noun) Form, type, style, variety. For example: ‘The new version of the computer software has many more functions than the old one.’
(adjective) At 90 degrees, straight up. Example: Unlike aeroplanes, helicopters can do a vertical take off.
(preposition) Through, by means of. For example: ‘We can now access all kinds of information quickly and easily via the internet.’
(verb) Disturb, intrude on. For example: ‘It is unacceptable where a situation violates our human rights.’
(noun) Physical harm to another person. Example: ‘Violence at football matches is, unfortunately, a common sight.’
(adjective) Apparent, obvious, able to be seen. For example: ‘There have been no visible benefits to the change in policy.’
(adjective) Able to be seen by the eye. For example: ‘Visual aids help to make a presentation more interesting to the audience.’
(noun) Quantity, amount. For example: ‘The volume of water that we waste every day is enormous.’
(adjective) Unpaid, charitable. For example: ‘A significant amount of assistance given in third world countries is given by voluntary workers.’
(noun) a person works for free out of choice. Example: ‘Many volunteers help at the homeless shelter.’
(noun) The letters a,e,i,o and u.
Some words can begin with a vowel sound even though the first letter is a consonant. Example: hour, honour.
(adjective) Defenceless, helpless, at risk. Example: ‘Older people are more vulnerable to ill health caused by cold weather’.
(adjective) Having a lot of something (commonly money) Example: ‘Bill Gates is a very wealthy man’.
(noun) Well-being. For example: ‘As a society we should be responsible for the welfare of the elderly.’
(conjunction) While, but. For example: ‘Promotion for women at work is even now sometimes difficult, whereas men often have more opportunities and earn higher wages .’
(adjective) Very common, all around. For example: ‘Death from treatable diseases is widespread in the developing world.’
(adjective) Has value and purpose. Example: ‘I thought that studying the course was worthwhile as I learned a lot.’