English Articles: A, AN, THE

English Articles: A, AN, THE
            A, an and the are called Articles. They are really Demonstrative Adjectives. They may also be called Determiners because they are used before Nouns. A and an are called the Indefinite Articles. They leave the person or thing spoken of in an indefinite state. They do not refer to or define any specific person or thing:

                        A book; that is, any book
                        An ox;  that is, any ox.
The is called the Definite Article. It particularises a person or thing:
                        He ran after the thief. (some particular thief)
An Article is generally used before a Countable and Common Noun, Singular Number:
                        Her is a letter for you.
                        There comes an ox.
                        This is the book I want.
But if the Common Noun (man and woman only) in the Singular is used in a general sense, then no Article is used:
                        Woman is vain.
Note:    This statement is correct only in the case of a man and woman.
                        Man can not bear such humiliation (here man = all men)
            But before other words, A means ‘every one’: ‘A cow has two horns’ means ‘Every cow has two horns’.
Position of the Article:
      Rule 1: An article comes before a noun ;
                        He is a boy often. I saw an owl in the forest.
                        The Taj is a historical building.
      Rule II.  An article comes before an adjective in case it qualifies some noun;
                        He helped are old man.
                        The cow is a faithful animal.
                        She reached the dense forest in the dark.
            Please note that the article a I an is determined by the sound of the adjective which follows it.
      Rule III. An article is placed before an adverb which comes before an adjective.                             
                        This is a very pretty girl.
                        This is a really difficult sum.
Please note that the article is sometimes placed after the adverb
                        She gave me quite a different reply.
                        It is almost the same story.
      Rule IV. Such is followed by a/an. All and Both are followed by the:
                        She is such a nice girl. We have never met such an idiot.
                        Both the brothers are wise. All the girls are smart.
Use of Indefinite Articles
Indefinite Articles are used:
            (a) In numeral sense meaning one
                        Seven days make a week.
                        Not a word did he speak.
                        Hundred paise make a rupee.
            (b) To represent a class;
                        A donkey is a beast of burden.
                        A subordinate should obey his boss.
                        A child cries when he is hungry.
            (c) In the vague sense of something certain:
                        One night a thief broke into his house.
                        In old days there was a king in India.
                        An old man had four daughters.
            (d) To generalise the Proper Noun:
                        He is a Newton, (as able as Newton)
                        Kalidas is a Shakespeare.
            (e) In the sense of the same:
                        Birds of a feather (lock together.
                        Two of a trade seldom agree.
            (f) In the sense of every:
                        I get a stipend of Rs. 1000 a month.
                        Rice costs forty rupees a kilo.
            (g) In the sense of some, any or a single:
                        I have a regard for my uncle.
                        She did not speak a word in self-defence.
                        There is not a man here who can solve this sum.
Use of A and AN
            A is used with a word having a consonant sound whether the word begins with a vowel or a consonant.
            (a) Consonants with consonant sound :
                        A man, a book, a pen, a B.A., a yard, a year etc.                    ‘
            (b) Vowels with consonant sounds like ‘w’ and ‘y’:
                        a one-eyed donkey, a one-way ticket a one-rupee note ; a one-legged girl. a useful book, a European a unique building, a university ;
            An is used before a word beginning with a vowel sound:
            (a) Vowels with vowel sound:
                        An eye, an elephant, an ox, an inkpot, an ear, an owl, an orange.
            (b) Before words beginning with a silent ‘h’:
                        An hour, an heir, an honest man.
            (c) Consonants with vowel sound:
                         An M.A., an S.D.O., an M.P.
Use of Definite Article ‘THE’
The is used :
1.         To particularise a person or a thing, or one well-known to us or one already men­tioned:
                        I have lost the pen that you gave me.
                        Let us go to the bazaar.
                        The thief was taken to the police-station.
                        He sent me a book. The book was interesting.
2.         When a Singular Noun represents the whole class:
                        The cow is a useful animal.
                        The fox is a cunning animal.
                        The lion is the king of beasts.
Note: The whole class of things can be shown in the following ways;
                        A camel is a beast of burden.
                        The camel is a beast of burden.
                        Camels arc beasts of burden.
Exception. Man is mortal. Woman is fickle.
            Man, woman never take an article when they are used in a general sense to denote the whole class.
3.         We use The with a Proper Noun when we wish to show similarity;
                        Kalidas is the first-rate poet in India, like Shakespeare.
            We can use The with a Material Noun when we change it into either ‘of Phrase’ or particularise it as a word or phrase or clause. The cotton of Egypt means especially cotton of Egypt.
                        Kalidas is the Shakespeare of Bangkok is the Venice of the East.
                        Gama was the Rustam of India.
                        Always speak the truth.
                        The cotton of Egypt is superior to that of Pakistan.
4. (a) With names of seas, oceans, gulfs, rivers, groups of islands, bays, straits and canals:
                        The Arabian Sea, the Indian Ocean, the Persian Gulf, the Ganges, the East Indies, the Bay of Bengal, the Panama canal, the Palk strait.
      (b) With a range of mountains.
                        The Alps, the Vindhyas, the Himalayas.
Note: (a) ‘The’ is not used before certain individual mountains;
                        Mount Everest, Parasnath.
(b) ‘The’ is not used before certain individual islands:
                        Sicily, Ceylon, Ireland.
5.         Before the names of sacred books, news-papers, magazines, ships and well-known Idings:
                        The Gita, the Tribune, the Indian Review, the Delhi (ship), the Taj.
Note: ‘The’ is not used before the title of a book bearing the name of a person or the author; as
                        David Copperfield, Tom Jones, Oliver Twist
                        Vyasa’s Mahabharata, Shakespeare’s Hamlet.
6.         Before the descriptive names of countries and provinces;
                        The Punjab, the Sindh, The U.S.A.
7.         Before the names of unique objects:
                        The sun, the moon, the earth, the sky, the sea.
8.         Before a Proper Noun when qualified by an Adjective or defining Adjective clause:
                        The great Akbar, the immortal Iqbal.
                        The Mr. Sharif whom you met in the evening is my friend.
9.         With an Adjective to represent a class:
The rich should not look down upon the poor.
The wise should be sober.
The literates should teach the illiterates.
10. (a) With the Superlative and in certain cases with Comparative Degree;
                        Dr. Iqbal was the greatest man of the world.
                        The longest day has the shortest night.
                        The tallest boy won the race.
      (b) Before a comparative adjective to denote selection out of two.
                        She sings the better of the two.
                        Vibha is the taller of the two sisters.
      (c) As an adverb with comparative.
                        The more, the merrier.
                        The higher you soar the cooler it is.
                        The more you waste, the more you suffer.
11.        To lay emphasis:
                        Selfishness is the order of the day.
                        He is the man for the work. This is the thing I want.
12.        Before Ordinals:
The second girl in the first row is my sister.
13.        Before the Nationalities, Communities (People) and Political Parties:
                        The Hindus, the English, the Burmese, the Muslim League
14.        In place of a Possessive Adjective:
                        He held me by the arm.
15.        Before dates:
I shall come back on the 13th of May.
16.        With the cardinal points (names of directions):
                        The sun rises in the East and sets in the West.
17.        Before the Adjectives ‘Same’ and ‘Whole’’ and after the Adjectives ‘all’ and ‘both’.
                        This is the same pen (as) you gave me.
                        The whole class was absent.
                        All the boys are present. Both the friends are jolly.
18.        Before an adjective to indicate an abstract idea.
                        I appreciate the honest, the good and the pure.
(Here the honest, the good and the pure indicate honesty, goodness and purity.)
19.        We use a/an when a singular countable noun is mentioned at first. We use the when we happen to refer again to the -noun already mentioned:
                        I saw an old man. The old man came to me.
                        I gave some money to the old man.
                        I went to a photographer. The photographer was young.
20. When someone/something particular is meant.
                        The teacher wrote to me a chit.
                        The baby is crying. Her mother is not at home.
                        I was talking to the councillor yesterday.
21. (a) Before a public building:
                        The Town Hall. The Prime Minister’s House.
      (b) Before some performances:
                        The circus, the show, the cinema, the concert.
22.        Before the name of an aeroplane or a ship:
                        The  Babar, the Tezgam                       
Study the use of the Definite Article in the following sentences:
      (a) The virtuous are generally happy.
            This is the book on Arithmetic. (The best)
            This is the teacher in the school.
            Time makes the worst enemies friends.
            The day dawned.
            The heat was unbearable there.
            The honourable minister will speak in the public meeting today.
      (b) Milk is sold by the litre.
            Cloth is sold by the metre.
            Eggs are sold by the dozen.
            We shall fight to the last.
            The old man is on the point of death.
            Do not leave your friends in the lurch.
            The colonial system is on the wane.
            He is quite upto the mark in the class.
            The number of students in the school is on the increase.
            You are in the wrong.
            He played the fool.
            He is on the brink of ruin.
            He met me in the guise of a beggar.
            Death stared us in the face.
We also say:
In the end                    all the same                  by the way
to go to the dogs          to go to the wall           in the nick of time        
in the face of                 out of the question                    on the one hand
on the whole                 on the eve of etc.
Omission of Article
Article is not used before :
1. Proper, Material and Abstract Nouns when they are used in general sense:
            Raza is the monitor of our class.
            Uranium is not found in Pakistan.
            Patience is a virtue.
(Proper Noun)
(Material Noun)
(Abstract Noun)
Remember :
      (a) When the Uncountable Nouns (Proper, Material and Abstract Nouns) are particular­ised the is used before them:
            Shahzad is the Newton of our class.
            The sugar of Java is not superior to that of Pakistan.
            The beauty of the garden is unique.
      (b) The is used before Proper Nouns preceded by Adjectives:
                        The honest Kashif.
Note: The is used in case some phrase makes them particularized
                        The children of my neighbour are very sweet.
2.         The Common Nouns in the plural:
                        Children like sweets.
3.         The Common Nouns used in the widest sense:
                        Man is a social animal.
                        Animals have an underdeveloped brain.
4.         A Common Noun in the Vocative case (Nominative of address):
                        Bring me a book from the library, boy.
5.         A Common Noun preceded by ‘kind of, ‘sort of, ‘type of:
                        What kind of man is he?
                        What sort of girl is she?
                        What type of house do you live in?
6.         Common Nouns used in pairs:
                        Both husband and wife are poets.
                        From head to foot she was dressed in white.
7.         Nouns used as complements:
                        They selected him President.
                        He was appointed monitor.
8.         A title, rank, status etc. used in Apposition to a Proper Noun;
                        Asif Ali Zardari, President of Pakistan.
                        Elizabeth, Queen of England.
9.         The names of lakes, capes, countries, continents, cities, days, months, languages etc.
                        English etc.
10.        Before names of meals:
                        She invited me to dinner.
                        Let us meet over tea.
                        I liked the tea, she offered me.
Here tea has been specified by the use of the clause ‘she offered me’.
11.        Before the nouns as bed, hospital, church, office, temple, school, college etc. when they are used for their primary purpose; as
                        She goes to office every morning.
                        My mother goes to temple everyday.
                        The injured were rushed to hospital.
                        My mother is still in bed
                        I went to the school to see the Principal.
                        I go to the hospital every day to see my aunt.
            Here the is used before school and hospital because they are used in a secondary sense.
12.        In certain Verbal Phrases (Transitive Verb + Noun); as
            to cast anchor               to follow suit                 to keep house
            to catch fire                   to lose heart                  to give ear                    to do penance               to set foot                            to send word                 to take offence etc.
                        The ship has cast anchor.
                        Her clothes have caught fire.
                        Don’t lose heart, cheer up.
                        Give ear to what I say.
                        Never set foot in our house again.
13.        In certain Prepositional Phrases; as
            Mother in not at home.             I am in mental trouble.
            She will return at sunset.                      I have never travelled by air.
            I go to school on foot.                She can do anything for money.
Note: the Omission of the Article in the following sentences :
      (a) Most boys axe careless.
            This is news to me.
            I live in Model Town.
            I am not in good health.
            Parliament will reject such a bill.
      (b) Don’t lose heart.
            The ship set sail.
            I sent him word.
            Take heart and play the game.
            Let us set to work now.
      (c) I am at home in English.
            He goes to school on foot.
            We work by day and sleep by night.
            He stood by me through thick and thin.
            The fox could not get at the grapes, as they were out of reach.
Points to Note
1.         If two or more Adjectives refer to the same noun, the Article is placed before the first Adjective only.
2.         If two-or more Adjectives qualify different Nouns, the Article is used before each Adjective.
3.         If two or more Nouns represent the same person or thing the Article is placed before the first one only.
Now mark the difference between the meaning of the following pairs of sentences:
I have a red and white cow.     
I have a red and a white cow.
(one cow)
(two cows)
The king and poet is dead.
The king and the poet is dead
(one person)
(two persons)
He is a better teacher than clerk.
He is a better teacher than a clerk.
(same person)
(different persons)
He met a smart girl and a woman.
He met a smart girl and a woman.
(both were smart)
(only the girl was smart)
He is the most intelligent boy.
He is a most intelligent boy.
(the best of all)
(one of the best)
Girls are going to school.
Girls are going to the school.
(are going to the school not.)
(necessarily that they study in it.)
Note: They are certain such Nouns which do not take the before them when they are used for the purpose they are meant for.
                        My brother has gone to school (to study).
                        Father has gone to the school (to talk to the headmaster).
                        He has gone to hospital (as a patient).
                        He has gone to the hospital (to meet his friend, who is a doctor).
                        He has gone to jail (as a prisoner).
                        He has gone to the jail (to talk to the jailor).
                        You go to church (to pray).
                        You go to bed (to sleep).
Common Errors in the Use of Articles:
Never tell lie.
She is an MA.
She is an M.A.
The sun sets in the West.
Sun sets in West.
Sun sets in the West
This is a news to me.
This is news to me.
She has headache.
She has a headache.
It is quarter to ten.
Why are you making a noise?
Why are you making noise?
Why are you making a noise?
Ganges is a sacred river.
The Ganges is a sacred river.
The both sisters are intelligent.
Both the sisters are intelligent.
I buy Pakistan Times daily.
I buy the Pakistan Times daily.
Sindh is drier than Punjab.
Sindh is drier than the Punjab.
Camel is ship of the desert.
The Camel is ship of the desert.
Cloth is sold by metre.
Cloth is sold by the metre.
I held him by arm.
I held him by the arm.
Lion is a king of beasts.
The lion is a king of beasts.
The gold is a precious metal.
Gold is a precious metal.
This radio set cost me thousand rupees.
This radio set cost me a thousand rupees.
Gita is a sacred book of Hindus.
The Gita is a sacred book of the Hindus.
The English is the language of English.
English is the language of the English.
Himalayas are the highest mountains in world.
The Himalayas are the highest mountains in the world.

English Nouns

English Noun
            A noun is a word that names a person, a place, a thing or an idea.
            PERSONS        Athlete, Grandfather, Faiz Ahmad Faiz
            PLACES           Parlor, seashore, Karachi
            THINGS           Chair, milk, atom
            IDEAS              loneliness, harmony, capitalism

            Dates and days of the week are also classified as nouns.
            1492                 Sunday             July 4, 1976
            Nouns are divisible into different kinds:
Common and Proper Nouns
            A common noun refers to one of a class of people, places, things, or ideas. It does not begin with a capital letter unless it begins a sentence. A proper noun gives the name or title of a particular person, place, thing or idea. It always begins with a capital letter.
            COMMON NOUN:      The sailors spotted an island.
            PROPER NOUN:                      The largest continent is Asia.
Compound Nouns
            A compound noun consists of two or more words used together to form a single noun. There are four kinds of compound nouns. One kind is formed by joining two or more words: wallpaper. A second kind consists of words joined by hyphens: dinner-dance. A third kind consists of words that are often used together even though they are not joined: bulletin board. The fourth kind is a name that consists of more than one word: Old Faithful.
Collective Nouns
            A collective noun refers to a group of people , places, things or ideas.
            The multitude of people gathered in front of the stadium.
            The museum has an excellent collection of Egyptian mummies.
Concrete and Abstract Nouns
            Concrete nouns refer to material things, to people, or to places. Some concrete nouns name things that you can perceive with your senses: bell, odour, breeze. Other concrete nouns name things that can be measured or perceived with the aid of technical devices. Although you may not be able to see helium, the noun helium is concrete because it names something that has a definite material existence. The nouns in boldface type in the following sentences are concrete.
            On his face was a large smile.
            The explosion of the tank could be heard two miles away.
            I could smell the fumes of gasoline in the air.
            People need oxygen in order to live.
[Even though you cannot see, hear, smell, or taste oxygen, it is a substance that can be measured.]
            Abstract nouns name ideas, qualities, emotions, or attitudes. The nouns in boldface type in the following sentences are abstract.
            J.S. Mills named liberty and the pursuit of happiness as two people’s rights.
            Noreen’s face showed great concentration as she awaited the start of the race.
            In a meritocracy, people assume leadership because of ability and talent.
Count Nouns and Non-count Nouns
            Most English nouns are count nouns. They refer to object which are thought of as separate and distinct entities and they have both singular and plural forms.
            I have bought a new book.
            Books are a source of knowledge.
            Crocodiles live in water.
            We saw a crocodile in the zoo.
            Non-count nouns do not have a singular or a plural form. In a sentence, a non-count noun is treated like a singular noun and uses the verb form for singular nouns.
            A and an cannot be used with non-count nouns. However, non-count nouns that represent a collection or a mass may be preceded by a phrase that indicates quantity, or quantifier, such as a lot of, a little, some much, any.
Example:          I like some butter on my toast.
                        (Not: I like a butter on my toast)
Now study the following sentences:
            Cows eat grass.
            Put some butter on the potatoes.
            Fill our pens with ink.
            Honesty pays in the long run.
            In the sentences given above, grass, butter, ink and honesty are uncountable Nouns. We cannot count them or we do not count them. We do not even use a, an, one, two, three etc. before them.
            We can group the following into Uncountable Nouns:
                                i.      Abstract Nouns:   honesty, courage, youth, freedom etc.
                              ii.      Material Nouns:  gold, silver, wood, paper etc.
                            iii.      Things that are not considered in numbers but in mass or quantity: grass, wheat, rice, sugar etc.
                             iv.      Liquids: ink, milk, water, oil etc.
                               v.      Gases: Oxygen, Hydrogen, Steam, Smoke etc.
                             vi.      Natural Phenomena: heat, cold, sun-light etc.
                           vii.      Branches of learning: Economics, Politics, Mathematics
1.         The Noun:    Gender
            The Gender of any Noun tells us whether the person or object talked about belongs to the male sex, female sex  or to neither of the two sexes. Only living beings have sex whereas both living (beings) and non-living (objects) have Genders. Therefore, Gender and Sex are totally different things. Pen and boat have a Gender but they have no sex.
            There are four Genders:
1.       Nouns denoting the male sex are of Masculine Gender: Father, Cock, Colt, Wizard etc.
2.       Nouns denoting the female sex are of Feminine Gender: Mohsina, hen, filly, witch etc.
3.       Nouns used for both male and females are of Common Gender: Baby, infant, child, friend, patient etc.
4.       Nouns denoting things without life are of Neuter Gender: Pen, book, slate, chair, pencil etc.
Remember that Uncountable Nouns, Lower animals and young ones are considered as Neuter Gender.
When lifeless objects are personified, they are considered as males or females.
1.       Things indicating strength, greatness, courage, awe etc. are regarded as Masculine Gender: Anger, death, ocean, sun, thunder, revenge etc.
The sun sheds his beams on the rich and the poor alike.
2.       Things noted for beauty, gentleness, grace, weakness etc. are regarded as Feminine Gender: Moon, peace, mercy, spring, truth etc.
The moon hid her face behind a cloud.
Peace has her victories no less renowned than war.
A ship, a boat, a railway train, a country and a nation are also treated as Feminine Gender.
2.         The Noun:    Number
There are only two numbers in English:
            The Singular Number and The Plural Number
            Nouns denoting one person or thing are in the Singular Number: Book day, bench, potato, wife etc.
            Nouns denoting more than one person or thing are in the Plural Number: Books, days, benches, potatoes, wives etc.
            The following are the rules for forming the Plurals of Nouns:
Rule 1:       By adding ‘s’ to the Singular:
Rule 2:       By adding ‘s’ to the Nouns ending in ‘y’ and preceded by a Vowel (a,e,io,u):
Rule 3:       By adding ;’s’ to Nouns ending in ‘o’ preceded by a Vowel:
Rule 4:       By adding ‘s’ to Nouns ending in ‘f’ or ‘fe’; as\
Rule 5:       By adding ‘es’ to the Nouns ending in ‘sh’, ‘s’, or ‘x’; as
Rule 6:       By adding ‘es’ to the Nouns ending in ‘o’ preceded by a consonant; as
Exception to the above Rule
Rule 7:       By changing ‘y’ into ‘i’ and then adding ‘es’ to Nouns ending in ‘y’ and preceded by a consonant; as
Rule 8        By changing ‘f’ and ‘fe’ into ‘v’ and then adding ‘es’ to Nouns ending in ‘f’ or ‘fe’; as
Rule 9:       By changing the inside Vowel or Vowels of the Nouns; as
(a)  Man
(b) Foot
(c)  Louse
(d)  Axis
Rule 10:      By adding apostrophe’s to Abbreviations and Numbers; as
Rule 11:      By adding ‘s’ to the chief word in the Compound Nouns; as
The following Compound Nouns take Double Plurals:
Rule 12:      The following Nouns are used as the Singular:
Offspring (issue)
                  This news was published in the Tribune.
                  Here is a summons for you.
                  Mathematics is my favourite subject.
                  Her hair is very long
                  You gave him much abuse.
                  My advice carries no weight with him.
                  The furniture in this office is broken.
                  His offspring has died
                  The innings lasts till all the players are not out
                  This information has been sent to all the offices.
                  The scenery of Nainital is very charming.
                  My bedding has been stolen.
Note: If required, the sense of some of the above Nouns may be expressed in Plural in the following ways:
  1. Pieces of advice, pieces of information, pieces of poetry, articles of furniture, articles of clothing, rolls of bedding.
  2. Her hairs are partly black and partly grey.
I pulled out four of her hairs.
Rule 13:      The following Nouns are always used as Plural: (They take plural verb)
(a)    Collective Nouns which are Singular in form; as
      Cattle, Poultry, Folk, People, Gentry, Vermin etc.
      The cattle are grazing.
      These poultry are mine.
      The village folk are credulous
      The gentry were invited to the function.
      The people of India are enterprising.
      Vermin carry disease.
(b)    Names of instruments of two parts forming kinds of pair; as
      Tongs, scissors, bellows, pincers, spectacles etc.
      These tongs are made of iron.
      These scissors are made of fine steel.
      Your spectacles are costly. 
(c)    Names of certain articles of dress; as
      Trousers, drawers, breeches, shoes etc.,
      Your trousers are torn out.
      These shoes are old now.
(d)   Certain other Nouns; as
Proceeds (of a sale)
Vegetables etc.
            My thanks are due to your brother for my appointment.
            Those quarters are newly built.
            The odds were against the English.
            The mason will finish the eaves today.
            Alms were given to the poor.
            Riches have wings.
            He takes pains in doing his work.
Note:    We also say a pair of scissors, a pair of spectacles, a pair of shoes etc.
Rule 14.      The following Nouns are used in both numbers, the Singular and the Plural:
            This proved a means to an end.
            The means which he adopted were unfair.
            Her means are small, but she lives well.
(‘Means’ when it has the meaning of ‘wealth’ is always plural.)
            Politics is an interesting subject.
            Your politics are known to me.
            Great pains were (or pain was) taken by them to solve the problem.
            The wages of sin is death.
            The wages of labourers have increased.
            The public is (are) the best judge (judges) in this matter.
            You will have to make amend (or amends) for his lose.
Rule 15.      The following Nouns have the same form for both the Singular and Plural:
(a)  He keeps a deer.
            There are many deer in the forest.
            He is a black sheep in the class.
            The sheep are grazing.
            A swine lives on dirty things.
            He owns many swine. (pig)
            I gave the beggar one pice.
            The price of this piece of blotting paper is two pice.
            The fisherman caught a little fish.
            Fish abound in this tank.
            One cannon was fired.
            Two cannon were fired.
(b)    I bought three dozen oranges and two score bananas.
            He sold the cow for two hundred rupees.
            The cost of this radio-set is one thousand rupees.
            He has twenty head of cattle.
            I do not like this kind of books.
            I keep three brace of pigeons.
(c)  Ten hundred kgs make one metric ton.
            He weights ten stone.
Note:    We always say hundreds of students, thousands of people, many kinds of fishes etc. But if one, two, three, four etc. precede them their form is singular.
Study the following sentences carefully.
            I bought this three-foot-rule for one rupees.
            He lost his two-year-old child.
            I have two five-rupee-notes in my pocket.
            I shall return within a fort-night.
Rule 16.      The following Nouns have different meanings in Singular and Plural:
Information (or instructions)
Range or extent
An instrument
Movable things (property)
A metal
Fetters (chains)
Natural science
Coming back
Income or (statistics)
A substance
A sandy tract of land, sea shore
A liquid
Springs or a large quantity of water
Things contained
Rule 17.      The following Nouns have two Plurals which have different meanings:
1. brothers
2. brethren
Sons of the same father.
Members of the same society.
1.    cloths
2.    clothes
Pieces of kinds of cloth.
1.    dies
2.    dice
Stamps of coining.
Small cubes used in games.
1.   geniuses
2.    genii
Men of talents.
Fabulous spirits.
1.    indexes
2.    indices
Tables of contents in books
Signs used in Algebra
1.    pennies
2.    pence
Separate coins
A sum of money considered collectively.
1.    staves
2.    staffs
Walking sticks or the lines used in music.
Bodies of clerks or officers.
Rule 18:            The following Nouns have two meanings in the Singular and one in the Plural:
1.   reproach
2.   wrong use
Wrong uses
1.   a part of the body
2.   infantry
Parts of the body
1.   animal
2.   cavalry
Many horses
1.   subject
2.   offspring
1.   light
2.   a lamp
1.   persons
2.   nations
Note:    The form of people remains singular but its meaning is plural (many persons).
Rule 19:      The following Nouns have one meaning in the Singular and two in the Plural:
A part of the body
1.   Parts of the body
2.   Weapons
1.   hues
2.   flags of a regiment
1.   habits
2.   duties levied on imports
1.   results
2.   property
1.   methods
2.   correct behaviour
1.   sufferings
2.   troubles
1.   portions
2.   talents, abilities
1.   conditions
2.   food
A fourth part
1.   fourth part
2.   lodgings
A sight
1.   sights
2.   eye glasses
3.         The Noun:    Case
            The Case of a Noun or a Pronoun shows its relation with some other sentence; as
            Shila’s sister, boys’ slates, etc.
            There are three Cases in English:
1.       The Nominative (or subjective)
2.       The Objective (or Accusative)
3.        The Possessive
1.       The Subject of a Verb is in the Nominative Case; the Object to a verb or Preposition is in the Objective Case and the possessor or owner of a thing s in the Possessive Case:
Birds fly
(Subject to the Verb fly)
The policeman caught a thief
(Object to a Verb
Boys are in the room
(Object to the Preposition in)
Rahim’s Horse is lame
(Possessor of a horse)
2.       The Noun defining another Noun is said to be in apposition with the Noun it defines;
Rafiq, the barber;
Dara, the dacoit
            Persons addressed are in the Vocative Case:
            Manzoor, do not make mischief.
            It is also called the Nominative of address.
3.       The Possessive Case is formed:
(a)    By using ‘of’ with Objects without life:
The door of the house; the pages of the book; the leg of a table etc.
(b)    By adding an apostrophe and s (’s) to Singular and Plural Nouns (not ending in s) having life; as
(i)                 Uma’s mother; My uncle’s friend; Man’s suit; Children’s toys etc.
(ii)               My mother-in-law’s house, Sheroo, the cobbler’s shop; Sadar-i-Riyasat of Kashmir’s palace etc.
(c)    By adding an apostrophe(’) only to Plural Nouns ending in s: as
(Cows’ tails; girls’ ribbons; boys’ pens etc.
4.   An apostrophe is also used with Nouns denoting:
(a)  Time, space or weight; as
            Two months’ leave; two days’ notice; a stone’s throw; a pound’s weight etc.
(b)  Personified Objects; as
            Death’s call, the Country’s honour, Mercy’s sake.

English Pronouns

English Pronouns
A Pronoun is a word that is used in place of a noun. Pronouns refer to persons, places, things, or ideas without renaming them. Amina is a person with a number of goals. Moreover, she is willing to work hard to develop them. [She is a pronoun replacing Anne. Them is a pronoun replacing goals.]
The noun that a pronoun replaces is the antecedent of that pronoun.

Khalid told himself that he should read the book and not stare at it. [John is the antecedent of the pronouns himself and he. Book is the antecedent of the pronoun it.]
There are seven kinds of pronouns: personal, demonstrative, reflexive, intensive, interrogative, relative, and indefinite.
Personal Pronouns:
Personal pronouns are pronouns that require different forms to express person, number, and gender. Person refers to the relationship between the speaker or writer and the person or thing being discussed. You use the first-person pronouns, I, me, we, and us, when you refer to yourself as the speaker or writer. You use the second-person pronoun, you, to refer to your audience. You use the third-person pronouns, he, him, she, her, it, they, and them, to refer to people or objects other than yourself or your audience.
The number of a personal pronoun indicates whether the antecedent is singular or plural. I, she, he, and it are some of the singular pronouns; we, they, and us are some of the plural pronouns; you can be either singular or plural.
The gender of a personal pronoun tells whether the antecedent is masculine, feminine, or neuter. He, him, and his indicate the masculine gender; she, her, and hers indicate the feminine gender; and it indicates the neuter gender.
Possessive Pronouns: Personal pronouns that show ownership or belonging are called possessive pronouns.
           If the books on the radiator are yours, you should remove them. Javaid went to get his calculator.
The following chart shows the personal pronouns, and the possessive pronouns are in parentheses.
I, me (my, mine)
we, us (our, ours)
You (your, yours)
You (your, yours)
He, him (his)
She, her (her, hers)
It (its)
They, them (their, theirs)
Demonstrative Pronouns
Demonstrative pronouns specify the individual or the group that is being referred to. There are four demonstrative pronouns: this, that, these, and those.
These are cantaloupes, and those are honeydew melons.
Of the two cars, do you prefer this or that?
Reflexive Pronouns
            Reflexive pronouns indicate that people or things perform actions to, for, or on behalf of themselves. You form reflexive pronouns with the suffixes –self and –selves.
FIRST PERSON            myself, ourselves
SECOND PERSON      yourself, yourselves
THIRD PERSON          himself, herself, itself, oneself, themselves
The Sharifs gave themselves two weeks for a vacation. [Think: gave to themselves two weeks.]
Nausheen bought herself a record. [Think: bought for herself   a record.]         
The horse hurt itself during the jump. [The horse performed the action of hurting upon itself.]
Intensive Pronouns:
Intensive pronouns are the same words as the reflexive pronouns, but they draw special attention to a person or a thing mentioned in the sentence. Intensive pronouns usually follow the words that they intensify.
Shakespeare himself could not have said it better. [The pronoun himself draws special attention to the subject, Shakespeare.]
This book has been autographed by the author herself.
[The pronoun herself draws special attention to author.]
The crowd expected the senator himself to show up at the rally. [Himself draws special attention to the direct object, senator.]
Albert’s mother found the ring itself behind the sofa. [Itself draws special attention to the direct object, ring.]
Interrogative Pronouns:
Interrogative pronouns introduce questions. Here are the most frequently used interrogative pronouns: who, whom, which, what, and whose.
Whose is this scarf?
Which of the two sofas did you buy?
What did you receive from Ms. Taylor?
Relative Pronouns
Relative pronouns introduce adjective clauses (Unit 3), which modify nouns and pronouns. Here are the relative pronouns:
who    whom    whose    which    that
The aircraft that Chuck Yeager used to break the sound barrier in 1947 was a Bell X-l rocket airplane. [Aircraft is the antecedent of that.]
People who live by the sword die by the sword. People is the antecedent of who.]
Indefinite Pronouns:
            Indefinite pronouns refer to people, places, or things in general. You can often use these pronouns without antecedents. The following list contains commonly used indefinite pronouns:
no one
Is any of the milk left?
Either of those three cyclists may win the bicycle race.
Several of the couples went out to dinner.
Use of ‘It’
            It is a persona pronoun. It is used in the following situations:
            (a) For young children, animals and inanimate Objects ; as
The baby loves to be with its mother.
The rat nibbled at the ropes with its sharp teeth.
I have bought a new pen; everybody has liked it.
(b) In speaking of the time or the weather ; as
It is ten by my watch.
It is clear today.
(c) In some Interrogative Sentences and their answers; as
Who is it ? It is I.
Who was it that knocked at the door ?
(d) To emphasize a Noun or a Pronoun ; as
It was Sohan who broke the window pane.
It is she who hid behind the curtain.
(e) In Introductory Phrase ‘it is’; as
         It is not like good boys to shirk work.
It is our duty to pay homage to the martyrs.
(f) In Exclamatory Sentences ; as
What a lovely flower it is!
What a horrible sight it was!
(g) To refer to a Phrase or a Clause going before ; as
You stole the book and I knew it.
He told a lie and you concealed it.
Use of Reflexive Pronouns
Reflexive Pronouns are used when the subject and object is the same person
(a) As Objects of Verbs; as
I hurt myself.
She enjoyed herself.
We hid ourselves.
(.b) With Prepositions; as
Please tell me something about yourself.
She was sitting there by herself.
(c) To emphasize a Pronoun; as
I myself saw the thief.
He himself killed the lion.
Study the following sentences :
My father and I (not myself) are going to Agra.
These books are for you and me (not myself).
My friend invited my brother and me (not myself) to tea.
Use of Relative Pronouns
            Relative Pronouns are used for their preceding Nouns.
            Here comes the boy who stole my book.
This is the book that lay on the table.
The Relative Pronoun must be of the same number and person as its Antecedent; as
This is the boy who stands first in the class.
It is he who is a thief.
It is you who are to blame.
It is I who am at fault.
The boys who are guilty shall be punished.
This is the only book that I like.
The Relative Pronoun should be placed as near to its Antecedent as possible; as
God loves those who love their fellow-men.
I hate the boys who shirk work.
Who, whose and whom are used for persons only; as
I know the man who is going on the road.
This is the boy whose book was stolen yesterday.
Tell me the name of the girl whom you want to see.
Which is used for things without life and for ordinary animals.
It may also refer to a sentence; as
This is the pen which my father gave me on my birthday.
This is the pen of which you have stolen the nib.
The cow which we bought last month has gone dry.
He lost his father which is really sad.
(a)        Restrictive use of who and which:
                        This is the girl who got the first prize.
This is the cow which we sold yesterday.
            Here who refers to a particular girl and which towards a particular cow. Hence they introduce the Sub-ordinate Adjective Clauses. The is always used in a restrictive sense.
(b)        Continuative use of who and which:
                        I met my cousin, who (= and he) gave me a message.
            She gave me a pen, which (= and it) was lost by me.
            Here who and which do not qualify cousin and pen. Hence they do not introduce an adjective Clause but introduce-co-ordinate Clause. These clauses are separated from the rest if the sentence by using a comma.
That is used:
(a) After the Superlative Degree:
            You are the laziest boy that I have ever seen.
She is the best singer that I know.
(b) After Numeral Adjectives:
Quaid-e-Azam was the first Indian that became the Governor-General of Pakistan.
(c) As a defining word:
Bring me the book that is lying on the floor.
The boy that stole my book, is punished today.
(d) Where the Gender is not known:
The child that was lost in the fair has been traced out.
(e) In speaking of persons, animals and things:
This is the house that I built.
He told me everything about the people and animals that he saw in Australia.
(f) After the Interrogative Pronouns;
Who are you that say so?
What harm has he done to you that you are bent on his ruin?
(g) In an Adverbial sense:
This is the time that (at which) she promised to come. (h) After the words it, all, any, nothing, only, same, none etc:
It was he that led me to trouble.
All that glitters is not gold.
Anyone that came there, brought some present.
It is not for nothing that I work hard.
It is only dogs that bark.
This is the same book that I bought yesterday.
There was none that did not love her.
‘What’, ‘that’ and ‘which’ are synonyms. ‘What’ is invariably used for things. It antecedent is always understood.
I mean what I say.
He does what he likes.
What he will say, is already known to me.
Use of Indefinite Pronouns
            Indefinite Pronouns point to some particular person I thing but they point to the Nouns which are not mentioned but are implied.
The following are the Indefinite Pronoun:
            One, none, some, somebody, anybody, anyone, no-body, every-body, other, all etc.
(a)                One is used:
1.       For people in general:
                  One ought to do one’s duty.
      But, we say:
                  Every-one ought to do his duty.
       When ‘One’ is a numeral, we say ;
            One of the girls is absent today.
2.       To avoid repetition of a Noun:
            This is a blue pencil; that is a red one.       
3.       In the sense of beings or creatures:
            A bitch loves her young one.
            (b)        None (= not one) is used:
            1. In the Singular when it refers to a Material Noun:
            I want milk ; there is none in the jug.
            2. In the Plural or Singular when referring to persons or Common Nouns:
                        None but the brave deserve the fair.                        (Plural)
                        Do you want oranges? There are none in the market.
                        Is there any letter for me ? No, there is none.      (Singular)
            (c)        Each, Every-one, Any-body, Every-body etc.
            1.         The Pronoun he, his, she, her etc., are used for anybody, everybody etc. according to the context:
                        Each of the boys has taken his share.
                        Every-one of the girls likes her manners.
            2.   We use he where the sex is not expressed:
                        Everybody likes to serve his own purpose.
                        Everyone can make /us choice.             
                        Anyone can speak if he likes.
Use of Distributive Pronouns
            Distributive Pronouns refer to a single person or one thing at a time. They are always followed by Verbs in Singular Number:
                        Each of the girls is present.
                        Either of you is at fault.
                        Neither of them is educated.
[‘Either’ means ‘one of the two’ (options) or ‘both of the two’ and ‘Neither’ means ‘no one of the two’.]
            Note: Either has two meanings:
                  1.   One or the other of the two.
                  2.   Each of the two or both.
                        There are shops on either side of the road.
                        You may take either of the two pens.
[‘Each other’ is used in case of two persons or objects/things and ‘one another’ is used for more than two persons or things.]

English Adjectives

English Adjectives
            An adjective modifies, describes, limits or add to the meaning of a noun or a pronoun, to modify a word, means to make its meaning more definite. Adjectives always modify nouns or noun equivalents.

1.       The old man was sitting in the sun.
2.       The cake tastes delicious.
3.       Hard work is key to success.

(i)     Adjectives of Quality: They describe Nouns. They show the quality, kind  or state of a person or a thing:
A fast friend; a rich man; honest boys; a noble king etc.
Adjectives formed from Proper Nouns are called Proper Adjectives. They are also classed as Adjectives of Quality.
The Indian batsman; The Kenya tea; The French lady etc.
(ii)   Adjective of Quantity: They show the quantity or degree of a thing:
Much money; sufficient labour; some bread; no patience; half holiday etc.
(iii) Adjectives of Number (Numeral Adjectives): They show the number (counting) of persons and things along with their order. They are of the following three kinds:
(a)    Definite Numeral Adjectives show order and definite number:
First, Second, Third etc.
One, two three etc.
Single, double three-fold etc.
(b)    Indefinite Numeral Adjectives do not show a definite number:
Some, many, few all, several certain etc.
(c)    Distributive Numeral Adjectives show each person or thing separately out of their groups:
Each, every either, neither
            Now study the following sentences carefully:
Adjectives of Quality
Adjectives of Number
Did you eat any ripe mango.
Are there any boys in the playground?
There is some milk in the jug.
Some girls did not attend the class today.
She has no sense.
No boy in the class has paid his dues so far.
He has lost all his wealth.
All the mangoes are sour.
Your father has enough money.
There are enough seats in the hall.
(iv)  Demonstrative Adjectives: They point to the concerned persons, places or things:
This, that, these, those, such, same etc.
A, an and the are also Demonstrative Adjectives. They are called Articles.
(v)    Interrogative Adjectives are used with Nouns to ask questions.
What time is it now?
Which pen do you like?
Whose house was burgled last night?
Adjectives have three degrees of comparison:
1.       Positive
2.       Comparative
3.       Superlative
1.       Positive Degree shows simple quality. Comparative Degree shows a higher or lower degree of quality, and Superlative Degree shows the highest or the lowest quality; as
1.       Rahat is a clever boy.                                  (Positive)         
2.       Rahat is cleverer than Shan.                                   (Comparative)
3.       Rahat is the cleverest boy in the class.         (Superlative)
            The Comparative and Superlative Degrees are formed:
(i)     By adding ‘r’ and ‘st’ to the Positive when it ends in ‘e’.
(ii)   By adding ‘er’ and ‘est’ to the Positive:
(iii) If the Positive Degree ends in ‘y’ and there is a consonant before ‘y’, change ‘y’ into ‘i’ and add ‘er’ or ‘est” with it.
(iv)  If some adjective ends in ‘y; and there is a vowel before ‘y’ add ‘er’ and ‘est’ are added to it.
(v)    If the Positive Degree ends in a single consonant, and there is some vowel before the consonant, that consonant is doubled and ‘er’ and ‘est’ are added to it.
(vi)   If some Positive Degree ends in two or more syllables add ‘more’ and ‘most’ or ‘less’ and ‘least’ before it.
More/less beautiful
Most/least beautiful
More/less Courageous
Most/least Courageous
More/less Intelligent
Most/least Intelligent
(vii)            Irregular Comparisons:
Bad, ill, evil
Good, well
Much, many
Foremost, first
Later, latter
Latest (time
Last (order)
Nearest, next
Older, elder
Oldest, eldest
Note: ‘Older’ is used in respect of ‘age’. ‘Elder’ is used only for members of the same family. Ahmad is my elder borther. Hamid is older than I (me).
(viii)          Certain words are Adverbs in Positive Degree but are Adjectives in Comparative and Superlative Degree:
Farthest (distance)
Furthest (Position)
Inmost, innermost
Outermost, uttermost
Up most, uppermost
1.         Positive Degree is used:
  1. To show simple quality and when there is no comparison:
            You are a clever boy.
  1. To show comparison between two persons or things when they are equal in some quality:
She is as tall as her sister.                                 (Positive)
He is not so wise as his friend.              (Negative)
Comparative Degree is used:
  1. When, two persons or things are compared, ‘than’ is normally put after them.
    Murree is cooler than Rawalpindi.
My picture is more beautiful than yours.
He is less intelligent than his brother.
Neelam is wiser than all the other girls of her class.
  1. In case of making a selection between two persons or things put ‘of’ in place of ‘than’ after the Comparative Degree:
      This book is the better of the two.
  1. In case, two qualities of the same person or thing are compared to each other, the Comparative form (degree) of Adjective is not used:
He is more wise than honest.
(a)                Now study the use of Comparative Degree in the following sentences:
The sooner you come, the better.
The oftener we do a thing, the easier it becomes
The more I advised them, the worse he grew.
(b)                The following Latin Adjectives in Comparative Degree take ‘to’ instead of ‘than’:
He is junior to me in service.
You are senior to me by two years.
This cloth is inferior to that.
The paper of my book is superior to that of yours
Prior to his appointment, he had to work for six months without pay.
Superlative Degree is used when more than two persons or things are compared. It is generally preceded by ‘the’:
      He is the wisest of all the boys in the class
Akbar was one of the greatest Mughal Kings.
You are the least industrious boy in the class.
Uzma is the most intelligent girl that I have ever seen.
Note:    If Possessive Pronoun is followed by superlative degree or in case there is a Noun in Possessive Case, ‘The’ is omitted; as
            You are my best friend.
            This is Shiela’s finest picture.
Some important points to Note:
(a)                Don’t use double Comparative or Superlative. It is incorrect to say:
She is more wiser than her sister.
He is the most tallest boy in the class.
But, we say:
            She is wiser than her sister.
He is the tallest boy in the class.
(b)                Never use the Superlative Degree where the Positive Degree is required.
He is a best player.                                           (Incorrect)
He is a very good player.                                              (Correct)
(c)                Use much, very much, or far before Comparative Adjectives and very and by far before Superlative Adjectives to make the Degree of Comparison intense:
You are much taller than he.
Raja is by far the wisest boy in the class.
(d)               To compare two qualities existing in, the same person or thing, use ‘more’ in place of comparative form (degree) of Adjectives.
Sohail is more brave (not braver) than prudent.
(e)        Some Adjectives like perfect, ideal, unique are not compared.
(f)         Former, latter, elder, hinder, inner, upper, minor, major, outer, utter etc., are not followed by than:
            Raheela and Ammara are two sisters. The former is a painter and the latter, a poetess.
            She is my elder sister.
Note:    We do not use than but use to after ‘elder’.
            Ahmad, my brother, is elder to me.
            The area of the inner circle is smaller than that of the outer one.
            You should try to overcome the major difficulty.
Nouns used as Adjectives:
            There are some Nouns which can be used as Adjectives:
            The well water is good to drink.
            She offered me a gold ring.
            Stone walls do not make a prison.
            He has joined a night school.
Adjectives Used as Nouns:
            Certain adjectives have been given below which can be used as Nouns. The article ‘the’ is placed before them and they are used in the plural, like the Common Nouns:
                        Always help the needy.
                        Do not look down upon the poor.
                        The rich are never contented.
                        Do not laugh at the blind.
                        Respect the old and love the young.
Note:    1.         Every four hours means regularly after an interval of     our hours.
            2.         Every fourth hour means after each interval of three      hours.  
            3.         Every other hour means every second hour.
1.         Attributive Adjective:
            (i)         Before Nouns:

                        I’m reading an interesting        novel.


                                      Adjective         Noun               

                        Ali needs          expensive         suits.
            Adjectives which appear immediately before the noun or noun phrase that they describe are called attributive adjectives.
i.        Good  boys are always polite.
ii.      Ahmad reads an interesting book.
iii.    Each one of us brought used books from the jumbo sale.
2.         Predicative Adjective:
            Certain adjective come after their verbs and said to be used predicatively. These verbs are these: be, become, seem, appear, feel, sound, taste, make, keep, look, get, turn, grow etc.
i.                    I feel good.
ii.                  It sounds great.
iii.                The weather grew cool.
iv.                 He makes me happy.
v.                   It appears nice.
The adjectives which come after the linking verb refer back to noun or pronoun of the subject and are called Predictive Adjectives.
i.                    Ali is intelligent
ii.                  Hassan is always very helpful.
After a direct object as objective complement.
iii.                Marium found the novel boring.
3.         Post Position:
a.         An adjective sometimes can be post position, i.e. they can sometimes follow the item they modify. It is usually regarded as a reduced relative clause.
            The people involved were found.
            Only indefinite pronouns ending in body, one, thing, where can be modified in post position:
            I want to try on something larger (i.e. which is larger)
b.         It also happens in several compounds such as;
            Attorney general: heir apparent; post master general; notary public, etc.
c.          A few adjective also have post position. For example:
            The house ablaze is next door to mine.
d.         Adjective Phrase:
            An idiomatic phrase or prepositional phrase modifying a noun comes after it.
For example:
i.        The king hale and hearty appeared majestically in the court.
ii.      The map, although old and worn, proved to be useful.
iii.    The boys of my class are very naughty.
(i)         All, Whole
            All denotes both quantity and umber, while whole referes only to quantity:
            All the apples are rotten.                                   (Number)
            She drank all the milk.                                      (Quantity)
            The milkman sold the whole (entire) milk.         (Quantity)
            The lion ate up the whole (entire) goat.             (Quantity)
Note:    ‘The’ is used after ‘all’ but before ‘whole’.
(ii)        Each, Every
            ‘Each’  is used with two or more persons (definite), while ‘Every’ is used with two or more persons (Indefinite):
            The two girls had each a book.
            Each of the girls had a book.
            Everything is ready. He comes to me every day.
Note:    Each and Every take a Singular Verb.
(iii)       Each other, One another
            ‘Each other’ is used for two persons or things while ‘One another’ is used with two or more persons (Indefinite):
            Board and Anders quarreled with each other over a watch.
            All the boys quarreled with one another.
(iv)       Either, Neither, Any, Any other
            Either means one of the two or each of the two.
            Neither is the opposite of either. Any means one or more out of many:
            There are shops on either side of the bazaar.
            I can speak on either side.
            He belongs to neither party.
            You may have any pen you like.
            She is wiser than any other girl in the class.
Note:    In such sentences never omit other because she herself is one of the girls.
(v)        Some, Any
            ‘Some’ is used in Affirmative Sentences; while ‘Any’ is used in Negative Sentences. But both of ‘Some’ and ‘Any’ can be used in Interrogative Sentences:
            I shall buy some books.
            I could not get any tonga there.
            Have you some work to do?
            Have you any money?
(vi)       Older, Oldest, Elder, Eldest
            ‘Older’ and ‘Oldest’ are used for both, living beings and things but ‘elder’ and ‘eldest’ are used for members of own family. ‘Than’ is not used with elder:
            My elder sister is much older than I.
            My eldest brother deals in cotton.
            This is the oldest temple in the city.
Mark the difference between:
            He is my oldest son.
            He is my eldest son.
(vii)      Later, Latest; Latter, Last
            Later and latest refer to time; while latter and last refer to position or order:
            I came later than he.
            What is the latest news?
            Ahmad and Hamid are two brothers. The former is an engineer and the latter is a pilot.
            He came last of all.
Note:    Later is opposed to earlier, while latter is opposed to former.
(viii)     Less, Lesser, Fewer
            Less denotes quantity; while fewer denotes number.
            Lesser is the double comparative of little:
                        This jug contains less milk than that.
                        No fewer than fifteen houses were burnt to ashes.
                        This is the lesser evil of the two.
(ix)       Farther, Further
            Farther means more distant; while further means next, onwards or additional:
            The nearer the Church, the farther from heaven.
            Let us proceed further.
(x)        First, Foremost
            First shows order or position; while foremost means the most important:
            I was the first to solve the question.
            The first chapter of this boo is not difficult.
            Our foremost duty is to obey our parents.
(xi)       Nearest, Next
            Nearest refers to position or order, next shows order in space or time:
            I went to the nearest railway station.
            The next house belongs to Rahat, my brother.
(xii)      Outer, Utter
            Outer shows position and utter refers to degree:
            The outer wall of this house has collapsed.
            In utter disappointment he gave up the attempt.
(xiii)     Many, Many a, Much
            Much denotes quantity while many denotes number.
            Many is followed by Plural Noun; while much by a Singular Noun:
            I have much work to do.
            Many students were absent yesterday.
            A great many men enjoyed the show.
            Many a man has died of cholera.
Note:    Singular Noun and verb are used after many a and not after many alone.

English Verbs: General

English Verbs
            A Verb is a word that expresses an action or a state or being. There are three kinds of verbs: action verbs, linking verbs, and auxiliary verbs.
            1.         The mother is feeding the baby.
            2.         The foolish crow tried to sing.
            3.         He is a voracious reader.

Action Verbs:
            An Action Verb describes the behaviour or action of someone or something. Action verbs may represent physical actions or mental activities.
            Jamil ran all the way home with the news.
            The herd of cattle thundered toward us. (Ran and thundered refer to physical actions.)
            Ida studies until late last nigh.
            Most of the critics admire the new musical comedy. [Studies and admire refer to mental activities.]
Linking Verbs:
            A Linking Verb connects a noun or a pronoun with a word or words that identify or describe that noun or pronoun. Many linking verbs are verbs of being, which are formed from the verb be.
            Lucy Stone was an American reformer of the nineteenth century. [Was links reformer to Lucy Stone.]
            The sofa along the far wall and the rocking chair in the corner are quite comfortable. [Are links the descriptive word comfortable to sofa and to rocking chair.]
            There are several linking verbs in addition to be. To tell whether a word is a linking verb, you can substitute a form of be for it. A list of linking verbs follows:
            Appear             grow                 seem                stay
            Become                        look                  smell                taste
            Feel                  remain              sound
            Our hockey team seems ready for the game tonight. [Think: our team is ready.]
            The extinction of dinosaurs remains a mystery to scientists. [Think: Extinction is a mystery.]
            Some verbs can be either action verbs or linking verbs, as in the following examples.
            Action:        Jafar appeared from nowhere when his mother called.                                 [Appeared describes an action.]
            Linking:     The department store appears rather crowded tonight.
                              [Think: The store is crowded.]
Auxiliary Verbs:
            Sometimes a verb needs the help of another verb, called an auxiliary verb or a helping verb. The verb that it helps is called the main verb. Together, a main verb and an auxiliary verb form a verb phrase. A verb phrase may have more than one auxiliary verb. Common auxiliary verbs appear in the following list.
            am, are, be, been, is, was, were                         may, might
            can, could                                                         must
            do, does, did                                                    shall, should
            have, has, had                                                  will, would
            In the following examples, the auxiliary verbs are in italic type, and the main verbs are in boldface type. Not and never are not part of the verb phrase.
            The teachers of Central High School have written a handbook for new students.
            The Kahns will not be moving to London after all.
            How many satellites does the United States launch every year?
List of the most common linking verbs:
Current Linking Verbs:
Appear             John appeared happy when the company promoted him.
Be                    The graduate students are in Classroom South, Room 106.
Feel                  She felt really happy with the new baby.
Lie                   The pieces lay scattered over the floor.
Look                 This person looks really tired.
Remain             Everybody remained silent for a few minutes.
Seem                This secretary seems (to be) very efficient.
Smell                That perfume smelled so fresh.
Sound              She sounded very surprised when she heard the news.
Stay                  Everybody stayed calm when the fire alarm went off.
Taste                this grapefruit tastes very bitter.
Resulting Linking Verbs:
Become            He became a successful business man.
Get                   She got upset with her students.
Grow                The professor grew unhappy because the students were not listening well.
Fall                  My brother  fell in love at the party.
Prove                The new secretary proved (to be) very friendly.
Run                  The children ran wild.
Turn                 The milk turned sour.
Dynamic and Stative Verbs:
            The verbs which describe action are called “Dynamic Verbs”. They can be used in Continuous Tenses.
1.                   He is writing fast.
2.                   Prices of food items are going up.
            Some verbs describe a state (non-action, situation). They are called “Stative Verbs”. They cannot normally be used with Continuous Tenses.
Note:    Some of the stative verbs can be used with Continuous tenses with a change in meaning.
1.                   I hear  a strange noise.
2.                   We like black coffee.
3.                   Every body loves his motherland.
(A)       Dynamic Verb: They can be further divided into various groups:
(i)         Activity Verbs:              ask, beg, call, drink, eat, play, read, write, work, throw.
(ii)        Process Verbs:              change, grow, mature, widen, deteriorate.
(iii)       Verbs of Bodily             ache, feel, hurt, itch.
(iv)       Momentary Verbs:        hit, jump, knock, nod, kick, fall, land.
(B)       Stative Verbs: The main division of stative verbs is as under:
            (a)  Verbs of Perception and Cognitions: desire, detest, doubt, guess, intend, imagine, regard, see, smell, think, understand, want, wish.
            (b)  Relational Verbs: belong, contain, depend, fit, involve, include, possess, resemble, seem, etc.
            The difference between stative and dynamic in terms of “willed” and “nonwilled” qualities. Consider the difference between a so-called dynamic adjective (or subject complement) and a stative adjective (or subject complement):           
            “I am silly” or “I am being silly”.
            Versus “I am tall”. I have chosen to be silly; I have no choice about being tall. Thus ‘tall” is said to be a stative (or an “inert”) quality, and we cannot say “I am being tall”. “silly”, on the other hand, is dynamic so we can use progressive verb forms in conjunction with that quality.
            The same applies to verbs. Two plus two equals four. Equals is inert, stative, and cannot take the progressive; there is no choice, no volition in the matter. (We would not say, “Two plus two is equaling four.”)
Kinds of Verbs:
Transitive Verb (Passing Over):
            A Transitive Verb is a verb that denotes or describes an action which passes over from the doer or subject to an object or affects something or someone.
            The boy reads his book. (reads what? his book)
                           V       O        
            He ate a banana. (ate what? a banana)
                  V          O
            The object is the noun or noun equivalent that receives the action of the verb. To find object in the sentence, put what or whom after the verb. The object is of a transitive verb is called a direct object. Some verb can only be used transitively.
i.        He made something (Not he made.)
ii.      I like it. ( Not I like.)
iii.    The car hit a tree. (Not the car hit.)
iv.     He brought the book. (Not he brought.)
Intransitive Verb (Not Passing Over):
(The verb that does not take an object)
            An Intransitive Verb is a verb that denotes or describes an action which does not pass over to an object.
                    i.      The baby sleeps. (Sleep what? no answer)
                  ii.      The boy is running. (The action of running doesn’t take place on anything else but the boy himself.
Note:    We cannot form a passive sentence from an intransitive verb.
            Intransitive verbs are not usually followed by direct objects. They need only the subject to make a sentence.
                    i.      He slept. (Not he slept something.)
                  ii.      She fell out of the tree. (Not she fell the tree.)
Many transitive verbs can be used intransitively without an object, but the object is still understood to be there.
            I am drinking (tea, water, etc.)
            Some verbs (e.g. walk, run, work, pass) can be used transitively and intransitively to express different meanings: many verbs can be either transitive or intransitive depending on the meaning and context:
i.        He is running.
ii.      He ran a long race.
Verbs Active in form, but Passive in sense:
            Transitive verbs are sometimes used in a Passive sense without being put into the Passive Voice.
1.         Verbs with a Complement:
                    i.      The stone feels rough (is rough when it is felt.
                  ii.      Honey tastes sweet (is sweet when it is tasted).
                iii.      The milk smells sour (is sour when it is smelt).
                 iv.      Your blame counts for nothing (is worth nothing when it is counted).
                   v.      Your composition reads well (sounds well when it is read).
                 vi.      The house does not let (is not taken when it is meant to be let).
               vii.      The horse does not sell ( is not taken when it is meant to be sold).
             viii.      That cloth will never thin (will become thin when it is worn).
2.         Verbs without a Complement:
                    i.      The house is building (= is in a state of being built)
                  ii.      The trumpets are sounding (= are being sounded).
                iii.      The cannons are firing (= is being fired).
                 iv.      The drums are beating (= are being beaten).
                   v.      The house is finishing (= is being finished).
                 vi.      The book is printing (= is being printed).
               vii.      The cows are milking (= are being milked).

English Verb: Infinitives

English Verb: Infinitives and Non-Finites
            To understand the difference between a finite verb and non-finite verb, look at these sentence:
1.                   he kills a snake.
2.                   To kill a snake requires courage.

In sentence 1, ‘he’ is the subject of the verb ‘kill’. Therefore, it is controlled by the number and person of the subject. It cannot go beyond the domain of the subject. Therefore, it is a Finite Verb.
A Finite verb agrees in number and person with its subject.
In sentence 2, ‘To kill” expresses the action independently as a verbal noun. In the absence of its subject it functions as the subject of the verb ‘requires’. Thus its meaning in the form of an action is not governed by any subject, person or number. In other words its meaning is infinte. Hence it is termed as non-finite or infinite.
Infinite or Non-finite is the verb the meaning of which is not limited by subject, person or number.
            Non finites are three types.
i.                    Infinitive
ii.                  Gerund
iii.                Participle
            Infinitive, Gerund and Participle are the forms of the Verbs which function as Nouns, Adjectives or Adverbs. They have no Predicate of their own. They cannot, by themselves, perform the full function of a Finite Verb. They are not limited by number and person. They have no subject, no tense and take no modals.
(To + Verb)
            The infinitive is the form of a verb which mentions in the abstract of the action expressed by the Verb. Generally ‘to’ is placed before the Present (crude) form of the verb to form the Infinitives. As – to come, to go, to stand etc. But sometimes, the infinitive appears without to. The infinitives which do not have ‘to’ before them are termed as ‘bare Infinitives’.
Use of Infinitive with ‘To’:
(a) After a Verb as an Adverb (called the infinitive of Purpose):
He stood to welcome me.
My father went to the college to see the Principal.
(a)    After an Adjective as an Adverb:
I am delighted to see you here.
She was astonished to hear the news.
Some of the adjectives used in this manner are: amazed, disgusted, disappointed, astonished, glad, happy, horrified, sad, surprised.
(b)    After a Noun or Pronoun as an Adjective:
He has many books to read.
I need water to drink
I wish you to get a good job.
(c)    After the verbs of Understanding: know, feel, suppose, understand, consider, feel, think etc:
He knows how to drive the car.
I consider him to be intelligent.
            Note: These verbs used as main verbs can be followed by object + to be:
            I consider him to be the best boy.
(d)   After Adjective/Adverb + enough:
He is mature enough to understand it.
She is rich enough to lend you money.
(e)    After too + adjective/adverb:
He is too young to understand.
It is too late to do anything now.
(f)     After how/when/where/what + to infinitive
I don’t know how to swim.
She did not know what to do.
Can you tell me where to find them?
How can I say when to leave?
(g)   After it is/was + adjective + for/of you/him etc.
It is good of her to help you.
It was brave of him to catch the thief.
It is important for the students to understand this lesson.
(h)   To join two sentences in place of clause.
1.         I went to the college. I met the Principal.
            I went to the college to meet the Principal.
2.         He went to the playground. He wanted to play.
            He went to the playground to play.
3.                   She was the first woman who saw the accident.
She was the first woman to see the accident.
4.                   The lady rushed home. She found her safe broken.
The lady rushed home to find her safe broken.
(i)     The infinitive is used after only to express a disappointing sequel.
He went to the house only to find it burning.
He survived the crash only to die in the river.
(j)     After the first, the second etc. the last, the only and sometimes after superlatives:
He was the first to win a prize.
She was the best actor to act in this play.
            The Infinitive is a Verbal Noun. It can be used instead of a Noun and it performs all the functions of a Noun, viz.
        i.            As the Subject of the Verb:
            To drink is bad for your health.
            To speak the truth is a virtue.
Note: In case of a Dummy subject, ‘It’ is placed in place of ‘to’ Infinitive. In that case the Infinitive ‘to’ becomes the virtual subject.
            It is bad for your health to drink.
            It is a virtue to speak the truth.
      ii.            AS the Object to a Verb:
                  I want to sleep now.
                  They want to play.
    iii.            As the Complement of a Verb:
                  I want to be a professor.
                  Her object is to marry this man.
     iv.            As the Object of a Preposition:
            She went  around to search her necklace.
            He sat down to take rest.
       v.            As an Object Complement:
                  I told him to distribute the sweets.
                  We helped them (to) engage a mason.
The Omission of ‘to’
      The ‘to’ of the Infinitive is dropped after the verbs ‘bid, dare, let, make, need, observe, have, fall, hear, see, watch, behold’ and all modals except ‘ought’.
I shall go.
You can sit.
I bade him go.
You need not worry.
How dare you come late?
I saw him fall.
I heard him sing.
He helped me stand.
He made me run.
I let him go.
      I had him cut my hair.
      But ‘to’ is not omitted when:
        i.            The above mentioned verbs except, ‘let’ are used in the passive voice:
He was seen to ring the bell.
I was made to stand.
The postman was heard to knock at the door.
The bucket was let fall into the well.
      ii.            When ‘dare’ is used in the affirmative:
I dare to say this.
He dared to oppose his elder brother.
(a)                But in the negative, ‘to’ following need/dare (modal auxiliaries) is dropped.
I dare not go before him.
You need not go there.
                        But when need and dare are used in the form of main verbs, ‘do’ (auxiliary verb) and ‘to’ (infinitive) are not dropped.
                                    Do you dare to do it?
                                    I don’t dare to go near him.
                                    Does Mohsin need to go there?
                                    I don’t need to go there as he himself is coming.
(b)                 After the modals:
You may go now.
She will pass this year.
They do not like sweets.
(c)                After ‘but’ and ‘except’:
I could not but laugh.
You do nothing but talk.
He does everything except deceive his friends.
(d)               After had better, had rather, would rather etc. and ‘than’:
You had better pay the bill.
He had rather retire than work.
I would rather starve than beg.
You should be punctual than irregular.
            But we say
                        You ought to obey your teachers.
                        She ought to have gone there.
      When two or more Infinitives are joined by ‘and’
                  To err is human and forgive divine.
                  I asked him to go home and bring money.
      Mark the difference
                  He appears to be rich. (At the present moment)
                  He appears to have been rich. (In the past)
            manage, cease, seem, decide, regret, try, attempt, consent, agree, neglect, promise, swear, learn, remember, ask, fail, care, prepare, decide, determine, help, expect, refuse, endeavour, tell, claim, long, mean, offer, pretend.

English Verb: Gerund – The Ing-Form

English Verb: Gerund – The Ing-Form
            A Gerund acts partly as a verb and partly as a Noun. It is formed by adding ‘ing’ to the first form of the verb. It is also called a Verbal Noun. In form it is similar to the form of Present Participle e.g. V1 + ing (eating, buying, cooking, dancing, walking, running etc.)
            Drinking is bad for health.
            Painting is really an art.
            A Present Participle also ending in ‘___ing’, expresses an unfinished action:

            I found her weeping.
            Seeing him alone, she went there.
            The only difference between a Gerund and a Present Participle is that a Gerund is used in the form of a Noun but the Present Participle is used as an Adjective.
Present Participle
The driving truck crushed the cyclist.
Driving needs concentration.
They saw Mohsin drinking.
Drinking is injurious to health.
            A Present Participle is that form of the verb which ends in ‘ing’ but has the force of both a verb and an adjective.
            A Gerund is that form of the verb which ends in ‘ing’ but has the force of both a Verb and a Noun.
Like a Noun, the Gerund can be used:
(a)    As a Subject to the Verb:
                  Riding is an exercise.
                  Gambling has ruined many.
                  Walking in the sun is harmful to eyes.
                  Stealing is a crime.
(b)    As an Object of the Verb:
                  Let us enjoy boating.
                  Stop playing.
                  I hate stealing.
                  She could not help laughing.
(c)    As the Object of a Preposition:
             was fined for coming late.
            he is fond of skating.
             am thinking of going abroad.
            he is very good at dancing.
            Note: When a verb comes immediately after the preposition, the gerund form must be use, e.g.,
                        He insisted on seeing her.
                        He is thinking of settling in Lahore.
(d)   As a Subject Complement:
            Seeing is believing.
            Sitting here is wasting (of) time.
            What I hate most is lying.
            The Verbal Nouns completely shed their Verbal force:
                        The reading of novels is my favourite pastime.
            A Verbal Noun is preceded by ‘the’ and followed by ‘of’. It is qualified by an Adjective:
            The cruel (Adjective) pricking (verbal Noun) of conscience filled him with sorrow.
Verbs, followed by Gerunds:
            The following verbs get the gerunds after them:
            enjoy, stop, finish, dread, detest, dislike, prevent, avoid, risk, admit, acknowledge, deny, recollect, resent, excuse, delay, imagine, fancy, forgive, pardon, postpone, keep, (continue), understand, consider, miss, save, resist, anticipate, involve, it is no use, suggest, can’t stand (endure), it is no good, can’t help (prevent/avoid), favour, practiced etc.
Stop wasting money on cheap books.
Forgive my interrupting you.
I don’t risk getting sick.
I anticipate meeting her soon.
She enjoys shopping.
He delays going to Karchi.
He postponed appearing in the Examination.
I fancy looking great.
She dreads getting old.
I resent being punished.
The team finished counting the votes
She detests meeting strangers.
Nobody could prevent her getting married.
She avoids mixing with flirts.
He admitted committing a theft.
She denied using foul means.
She recollected meeting the minister.
I can’t imagine living anywhere else.
She keeps dozing everytime.
The boss acknowledged making a mistake.
I considered approaching the principal.
She dislikes backbiting others.
She favoured traveling with me.
She couldn’t help laughing.
I missed seeing her.
She practiced dancing every day.
I suggest going for a picnic.
It is no use wasting your time.
Either Gerund or Infinitive can be used after these verbs:
            permit, remember, regret, forget, allow, recommend, advise, love, prefer, hate, like, attempt, can’t bear, intend, begin, continue, start, it needs/requires/wants, mean, go on be afraid (of), try, propose, used to.
            Note: When some of the verbs shown above are used as a Gerund or Infinitive, their meanings are changed.:
                        I remember meeting her last year.
            (‘I remember that I met her last year’ – the action of meeting has already occurred. But in ‘I will remember to see him’, the action of seeing is not yet over – it is yet to be completed.)