IELTS English Vocabulary – A

A
ABANDON: (verb) Leave, discard, desert. For example: ‘The fishermen had to abandon their ship and escaped to safety in the rescue helicopter when they were caught in the storm last week.’
ABSTRACT:
(verb) Summary, synopsis, short version. For example: ‘When researching journals for information, it is useful to read just the abstract to quickly find out if the topic is relevant to your assignment as it takes too long to read the whole thing.’
ACADEMIC:
(adjective) Something or someone showing a high level of education. Example: ‘University students have to write in an academic style’.

ACADEMY:
(noun) School, comedy, institute. For example: ‘The academy, which opened two years ago, has just had the pleasure of seeing its first group of students graduate.’
ACCESS:
(verb) Gain entry to, get in to, log on to. For example: ‘It is possible to access a wide range of information on the internet.’
ACCLIMATISE:
(verb) Adapt, become used to something. Example: ‘It can take some time to acclimatise when first moving to a new country.’
ACCOMMODATE:
(verb) Hold, have room for. For example: ‘The hotel seems able to accommodate our needs for the upcoming seminar.’
ACCOMMODATION:
(noun) Place to stay or temporary place to live. Example: ‘Accommodation in capital cities is often very expensive.’
ACCOMPANY:
(verb) Go with, escort. For example: ‘The Prime Minister will be accompanied by four government officials through the whole tour of Australia.’
ACCORDINGLY:
(adverb) To show something corresponds, relates. Example: ‘He was told that the project was urgent, so he accordingly worked overtime until it was completed’.
ACCOUNTABLE:
(adjective) reponsible, answerable. Example: ‘Parents should be accountable for the actions of their children’.
ACCUMULATE:
(verb) Collect, gather, amass. For example: ‘The business accumulated a huge amount of debt in the year prior to its closure.’
ACCURATE:
(adjective) Correct, true. For example: ‘I am not sure if the information you have received is accurate as I have heard much different information from a reliable source.’
ACCUSING:
(adjective) Giving the blame to someone for something. Example: ‘When writing letters of complaint, it is a good idea to avoid being too accusing’.
ACHIEVE:
(verb) Get, accomplish, attain. For example: ‘He won four gold medals and three silver medals in his sporting career and achieved a lot on behalf of his country.’
ACKNOWLEDGE:
(verb) Recognise, make reference to. For example: ‘I feel disappointed because my manager did not acknowledge all of the hard work I had put into the project at last week’s meeting.’
ACQUIRE:
(verb) get hold of, gain, purchase. For example: ‘His business is to acquire computers at low cost prices then sell them on for a profit overseas.’
 ACQUIT:
(verb) To let go, to release from blame. Example: ‘He was acquitted of the murder because there was no evidence’.
ACRONYM:
(noun) A word made up of the inital letters of a collection of words. Example: ‘IELTS is the acronym for the International English Language Testing System’.
ACTIVE VERB:
(noun phrase) A verb which describes an action. Example: run, write, listen, sleep.
ADAPT:
(verb) get used to, change, adjust. For example: ‘It can be difficult to adapt to a different environment.’
 ADDICTION:
(noun) A habit involving something that is not just wanted but needed. For example: A drug addiciton
ADDITION:
(noun) More of something. Example: ‘Schools would benefit from more funding. In addition, they would also benefit from having more qualified teachers.’
ADEQUATE:
(adjective) enough, sufficient. For example: ‘A large number of homeless people do not have adequate food to eat.’
ADJACENT TO:
(preposition) next to, near to. For example: ‘The reception area is adjacent to the Conference room, ask there and they’ll show you in.’
ADJECTIVE:
A word used to describe a noun. Examples of adjectives: hot, cold, intelligent, impressive
ADJUST:
(verb) Alter, change, adapt. For example: ‘There were errors in my last pay cheque so they have adjusted this month’s pay to correct the mistake.’
ADMINISTRATE:
(verb) Control, run, manage. For example: ‘The Head Office in London administrates all operations for the company for the rest of the country.’
ADULT:
(noun) grown up, no longer a child. For example: ‘In the UK, teenagers officially become classed as adults on their 18th birthday.’
ADVANCE:
To move forward; to improve something.
ADVERB:
An adverb describes a verb. Examples: run quickly, wait patiently
ADVOCATE:
(noun) Supporter, backer, believer. Example: ‘While many people oppose the new rules, there are probably enough advocates to give support. ‘
(verb) To support, to back, to believe in. Example: ‘Some countries advocate higher wages for teachers’.
AFFECT:
(verb) Have an effect on, influence. For example: ‘Drinking alcohol severely affects a person’s ability to drive safely.’
AGGREGATE:
(adjective) Total, combined. For example: ‘We have 40 staff in aggregate and the majority of them work in Sales.’
AGGRESSIVE:
(adjective) Showing anger or violence. Example: ‘Some animals become aggressive if they are treated badly’.
AID:
To help.
AIM:
(verb) To direct towards a particular goal or target. For example: ‘I am aiming to get a 7.5 on my IELTS test’
ALBEIT:
(adverb) Although, though, even though. For example: ‘A university education gives graduates the opportunity to enter a high paid job over the long term, albeit an expensive investment during their years of study.’
ALLOCATE:
(verb) Assign, give out. For example: ‘The Government should allocate a higher percentage of funding for healthcare’
ALTER:
(verb) Change, adjust. For example: ‘Many cities have altered their road systems dramatically in order to cope with additional traffic.’
ALTERNATIVE:
(noun) Option, other choice. For example: ‘The only alternative to cutting staff hours would be to make some members of the team redundant.’
AMBIGUOUS:
(adjective) Unclear, vague, confusing. For example: ‘The email message from the CEO was ambiguous and confused the majority of the Management team.’
AMEND:
(verb) Alter, make corrections, improve. For example: ‘The university policy regarding international students was amended last July and the changes will be put in place from the New Year.’
ANALOGY:
(noun) Likeness, similarity, comparison. For example: ‘The finance lecturer used an analogy to help students understand the concept of profitability to a company; he said it was similar to the body’s need for food.’
ANALYSE:
(verb) To examine carefully and in detail to find key points. Example: ‘It is important to analyse the question before you start writing your IELTS essay’.
ANNUAL:
(adjective) Yearly, twelve-monthly. For example: ‘The budget is decided on an annual basis, at the end of April each year.’
ANNUL:
(verb) Cancel or remove. Example: ‘Developed countries should annul the debts of developing countries.’
ANTI-SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR:
(noun phrase) Against the good of society. Example: ‘Increasing anti-social behaviour is a cause for concern’.
ANTICIPATE:
(verb) Expect, predict. For example: ‘It is difficult to anticipate which questions will come up in an examination as the lecturer uses a mixture of new questions and those from past exam papers.’
APOLOGY:
(noun) A statement showing that you are sorry about something you have done. Example: ‘Many people are happy to forgive if they receive an apology’.
(verb) Apologise (US spelling apologize)
APPARENT:
(adjective) Clear, plain, obvious. For example: ‘It is apparent from the travel information he gave us that we will be spending a long time travelling on the bus.’
APPEARANCE:
(noun) Physical characteristics; the way something looks. Example: ‘People are often judged by their appearance’.
APPEND:
(verb) Add on, attach. For example: ‘When students complete a University assignment it is common for them to append additional information at the end of the project. These are called the appendices and should be clearly numbered.’
APPLIANCE:
(noun) Electrical item or tool. Eg: iron, fridge, toaster, kettle.
APPRECIATE:
(verb) Be thankful for, be pleased about, value. For example: ‘James really appreciated all of the help that Steven had given him with his revision, so much so that he bought him a gift to say thank you.’
APPROACH:
(noun) Style, methodology. For example: ‘Different people have different approaches to learning and revision, one way is to make notes of the main issues and read over them several times to help remember the information.’
(verb) The way of doing something
APPROPRIATE:
(adjective) Suitable, correct, fitting. For example: ‘It is not always appropriate to act in the same way as usual when in a different culture..’
APPROXIMATE:
(adjective) Estimated. For example: ‘We are unsure exactly how many new students will enrol in the course next term, however, we could expect approximate figures to be around 150.’
ARBITRARY:
(adjective) Random, chance, illogical. For example: ‘The system for deciding which workers will lose their jobs can sometimes seem fairly arbitrary as it does not seem that experience, or length of time working at the company are taken into account..’
AREA:
(noun) Section, part, field. For example: ‘It is important to consider carefully which area of business we hope to work in, in the future and choose modules for study which give experience in that field.’
ARRANGEMENT:
(noun) An agreed plan. Example: ‘The company made an arrangement to deliver the product before 5.30 pm.’
ASCRIBE:
(verb) A specified cause, source, or origin. Example: ‘The decline in the number of people reading books can be ascribed to the availability of the internet’.
ASPECT:
(noun) A part or feature of something. Example: ‘There are 4 aspects the examiner will mark your essay on’.
ASSEMBLE:
(verb) Put together, build, compile. For example: ‘Jason has just assembled a new computer from parts he was given by friends.’
ASSESS:
(verb) Measure, test, gauge. For example: ‘In the IELTS exam students are assessed on their ability to read, write, speak and listen in English.’
ASSIGN:
(verb) Give, allocate, designate. For example: ‘I have been assigned a new project at work, which will involve business trips to Japan as I am the only member of the team who can speak Japanese.’
ASSIST:
(verb) Help, aid, support. For example: ‘Being a P.A. can be an interesting job as the role involves assisting the CEO with a variety of important tasks.’
ASSUME:
(verb) Think, believe, presume. For example: ‘It is sometimes wrongly assumed that people with disabilities are also stupid.’
ASSURE:
(verb) promise, guarantee, pledge. For example: ‘The technical support team assured me that the internet service would be working again within the next 30 minutes.’
ATTACH:
(verb) add, join, append. For example: ‘I replied to the job advert by email and had to attach a copy of my CV and qualifications.’
ATTAIN:
(verb) Achieve, accomplish, reach. For example: ‘It is possible for most people to attain wealth through hard work and education. ‘
ATTITUDE:
(noun) Way of thinking, approach, manner. For example: ‘With a positive attitude and hard work it is possible for most people to gain a tertiary qualification.’
ATTRIBUTE:
(noun) Characteristic, feature, trait. For example: ‘Simon has many positive attributes including patience, dedication and understanding.’
AUTHOR:
(noun) Writer. For example: ‘It is important to reference the name of the author and the year the book was written if quoting from other books or journals in academic writing.’
AUTHORITY:
(noun) Power, right, influence. For example: ‘Teachers no longer have the authority to smack children at school.’
AUTOMATE:
(verb) mechanise, computerise. For example: ‘Many companies are automating their systems reducing the need for people as machinery can do their jobs equally well.’
AVAILABLE:
(adjective) existing, accessible, to be had. For example: ‘Types of medical treatment available is increasing all the time due to medical research.’
AWARE:
(adjective) Informed, concerned. For example: ‘It is important for us to be aware of the impact of human behaviour on the environment.’
AWARENESS:
(noun) Understanding and acknowledgement of something. Some parents have no awareness of the teenage drug problem’.
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IELTS English Vocabulary – B

B
BALANCE:
(noun) Equality, giving equal importance to. Example: ‘A good essay should show balance, considering both sides of the argument.’
BALANCED:
(adjective) Considering both sides, fair. Example: ‘It is important to write a balanced argument when asked for an opinion.’

BAN:
(verb) To make illegal. Example: ‘Smoking in public places has been banned in many countries’.
BARBARIC:
(adjective) Cruel; uncivilised. Example: ‘Many people believe that capital punishment is barbaric.’
BEAR IN MIND:
(verb / idiom) Remember, consider. Example: ‘Always bear in mind that you only have 40 minutes to complete Task II’.
BEHALF (on behalf of someone or something):
(preposition) For. For example: ‘He thanked the guests for coming on my behalf as I had to leave early and couldn’t talk to everyone.’
BENEFICIAL:
(adjective) Useful, bringing advantages. Example: ‘It is beneficial for IELTS candidates to spend some time studying before taking the test’.
BENEFIT:
(verb) Help, assist, do good for. For example: ‘Eating healthily and taking regular exercise can benefit people who are overweight.’
BLANK:
(adjective) Without information; empty. Example: ‘Answer all the questions in the IELTS test. Don’t leave any blank spaces.’
BOND:
(verb) Connect, link, build a relationship. For example: ‘Human beings are naturally social and it is important for us to bond with the people around us.’
BRAINSTORM:
(verb) Think of all related ideas. Example: ‘When trying to write Task II, you should brainstorm for ideas.
BRIEF:
(adjective) Short, quick . Example: ‘The meeting was brief as everyone was very busy’.
BRIEFLY:
(adverb) Short, quickly. Example: ‘He briefly looked at the essay but didn’t read it in detail’.
BUDGET:
(adjective) cheap, value for money. Example: ‘Many young people on holiday stay in budget hotels or motels.
BULK:
(noun) Main part, major part. For example: ‘The bulk of the research has now been done, though we have a few small issues to finish before it is completed.’

IELTS English Vocabulary – C

C
CAPABLE:
(adjective) Able, confident, skilled. For example: ‘I sometimes feel I am not capable of writing my university essays in English, it is quite difficult for me.’
CAPACITY:
(noun) Size, volume. For example: ‘The class is full to capacity so I will have to wait and enroll in a new class next month.’

CAPITAL PUNISHMENT:
(noun) The penalty of death for a crime
CATEGORY:
A division or class of something. For example: There are several categories of cars – family cars, sports cars, 4 wheel drives…
CAUSE:
(noun) The reason something happens. Example: ‘The cause of rising sea levels is the melting of polar ice’.
CEASE:
(verb) Stop, end, finish. For example: ‘He has been made redundant and his employment contract will officially cease on July 21st.’
CELEBRITY:
(noun) Someone very well known; a public figure. ‘Many celebrities, such as Tom Cruise, are photographed wherever they go.’
CENTRALLY CONTROLLED:
(adjective) Controlled by a country’s government, not by local governments.
CERTAINTY:
(noun) No doubt; sure. Example: ‘It is a certainty that the world’s population will increase.’
CHALLENGE:
(verb) To argue against an opinion. Example: ‘In IELTS writing, you may need to challenge an opinion by giving a different point of view’.
(noun) A difficult situation. Example: ‘Studying in a second language can be a challenge for many students’.
CHALLENGING:
(adjective) Difficult, not easy. Example: ‘It can be challenging for international students to study at university in a second language’.
CHANNEL:
(verb) Direct, guide, feed. For example: ‘The Government promises to channel more funds into fighting crime if they win the next election.’
CHAPTER:
(noun) Section, part of a book. For example: ‘The information we learned today in the lecture is found in more detail in chapter 10 of the textbook.’
CHARACTER:
(noun) How someone behaves / thinks / acts. Example: ‘He has a very friendly, approachable character.’
CHART:
(noun) graph, table, diagram. For example: ‘It was clear from the bar chart that sales had risen in the period January-April.’
CHEMICAL:
(noun) Substance, element, compound. For example: ‘There are many harmful chemicals in cigarette smoke.’
CIRCUMSTANCE:
(noun) Situation, event. For example: ‘It should depend on the individual circumstances of the crime, as to whether the death penalty is implemented.’
CITE:
(verb) Situation, event. For example: ‘It is important to cite the name of the author you have used information from in academic writing for university.’
CIVIL:
(adjective) Related to individuals and the general public. For example: ‘Civil rights allow the right to privacy in most countries.’
CIVILISED:
(adjective) Having a high state of culture, technology or society. Example: ‘Many ancient cultures, such as the Egyptians and the Aztecs, were highly civilised.’
CLAIM:
(noun) Something stated as fact, though not necessarily proven. Example: ‘His claims have been ignored by the government’.
CLARIFY:
(verb) Explain, make clear. For example: ‘The instructions given on the examination paper were not clear so we asked the invigilator to clarify what we had to do.’
CLASSIC:
(adjective) Typical. For example: ‘A classic example of discrimination is lower pay for women.’
CLASSIFY:
(verb) To put into a group or category. Example: ‘Humans are classified as mammals. Sharks are classified as fish’.
CODE:
(noun) Rule, regulation. For example: ‘Knowledge of the highway code is tested in the driving test in a theory exam.’
COHERENCE:
 (noun) Able to be understood. Example: ‘An essay needs to show coherence; that is, a logical flow of ideas’.  See also COHERENT
COHERENT:
(adjective) Logical, reasoned. For example: ‘In order to gain good marks it is important to write an essay which has good ideas and is coherent.’
COHESION:
 (noun) Joining ideas together. Example: ‘A good essay will be easy to understand because of its cohesion’
COINCIDE:
(verb) Happen togther, match, overlap. For example: ‘The date for my IELTS exam coincided with my college exams so I did not have enough time to study properly as I had too much to do.’
COLLAPSE:
(verb) Give way, fail, come to nothing. For example: ‘The ideas and proposal for the new business development collapsed when it became clear that necessary funding was not available.’
COLLEAGUE:
(noun) Co-worker. For example: ‘Having supportive colleagues in the workplace is very important’
COLLOQUIAL:
(adjective) Local and informal language. Example: ‘Mate’ means ‘friend in many English speaking countries’.
SLANG (noun) Words used informally, often by particular groups.
COMBINATION:
(noun) When two or more things are put together. Example: ‘Some IELTS questions will require you to use a combination of skills and abilities’.
COMFORTABLE:
(adjective) Calm, relaxed, at ease. Example: ‘It is important to show the examiner that you are comfortable speaking English during your IELTS test’.
COMMENCE:
(verb) Start, begin. For example: ‘The new university semester commences on February 25th and all new students need to enroll the week before.’
COMMENT:
(verb) Say in passing, mention, point out. For example: ‘My teacher commented that my English has improved a lot in the last two months when I spoke with her the other day. ‘
COMMISSION:
(verb) Appoint, authorise. For example: ‘ In many people’s opinion artworks commissioned by the Council, are an example of money badly spent as there are more important projects to spend money on.’
COMMIT TO:
(verb) Pledge. For example: ‘Although the Government said, during the last election that it was committed to reducing crime rates there has been an increase in violent crime in the last three years.’
COMMODITY:
(noun) Product, good or service. For example: ‘Electronic commodities such as computers and equipment have fallen dramatically in price since their introduction to the market.’
COMMON:
(adjective)
#1 – Similar, shared. Example: ‘It is beneficial if husbands and wives have common interests’.
#2 – Usual, regularly occuring. Example: ‘It is common for language learners to make grammar mistakes’.
COMMUNICATE:
To give or exchange thoughts, ideas or opinions.
COMMUNITY:
(noun) A group of people in society. For example: ‘Over recent years local communities have become more concerned about increase in crime in their areas.’
COMPARATIVE:
(grammar term) The form of an adjective used for comparing. Example: tall > taller
COMPARISON:
(noun) When something is compared to something else. Example: ‘There have been comparisons made between the landscape of New Zealand and Norway’.
COMPATIBLE:
(adjective) Well-matched, like-minded. For example: ‘It is important for employers to employ the most suitable person for a job and that the employee’s personality is compatible with the position being offered.’
COMPENSATE:
(verb) Balance, make up for. For example: ‘Nowadays some parents try to compensate for having little time to spend with their children by giving them too many material things such as toys and games.’
COMPILE:
(verb) List, compose, record. For example: ‘Before I go to the library I need to compile a list of information I need to look for while I am there.’
COMPLAIN:
(verb) To say that you are not satisfied or happy with something or someone. Example: ‘The customer complained about the poor service’.
(noun) = Complaint
COMPLEMENT:
(verb) Add to, accompany. For example: ‘Following a healthy diet and taking regular exercise complement each other well to create a healthy lifestyle..’
COMPLEX:
(adjective) Not simple, involved, difficult. For example: ‘Arguments in support of, and against the death penalty need to be considered carefully, as the subject is extremely complex.’
COMPLICATED:
(adjective) Difficult, intricate. Example: ‘Mathematics studied at university level is complicated’.
COMPONENT:
(noun) Part, piece. For example: ‘Tom has the ability to fix my computer but is unsure if he can find the correct components he needs to sort out the problem.’
COMPOUND:
(verb) Add to, increase (a negative situation). For example: ‘Governments should invest more money into public health care as lack of funds only compound the problem hospitals are facing.’
COMPREHENSIVE:
(adjective) Wide-ranging, thorough. For example: ‘Hospitals should provide comprehensive information booklets so that patients will know what to expect when they have an operation.’
COMPRISE:
(verb) Include, contain, thorough. For example: ‘Australia comprises several states including the A.C.T. which contains Canberra.’
COMPULSORY:
(adjective). Essential, must be done, no choice. Example: ‘It is compulsory to have a passport when travelling overseas’.
CONCEIVE:
(verb) Visualise, imagine, think of. For example: ‘It is difficult for us to conceive the long term environmental impact of our actions now. ‘
CONCENTRATE:
(verb) Focus, think. For example: ‘It is important to concentrate when revising for exams, study some where quietly and switch of all distractions including radios and TV.’
CONCEPT:
(noun) Idea, theory. For example: ‘I am learning about Marketing concepts in my class this week, it is interesting to find out about so many different theories.’
CONCESSION:
(noun) An acknowledgment or admission that there are opinions different to your own. Example: ‘It is important to add a concession to your Task II essay to show that you can consider other opinions’.
CONCLUDE:
(verb) End, finish, bring to a close. For example: ‘Before concluding the meeting the CEO thanked us for attending and for our input.’
CONCRETE:
(adjective). Real, not theoretical or abstract. Example: ‘A concrete example’
(noun) A substance that is mixed with sand and water to create a solid material used in building.
CONCURRENT:
(adjective) Same time, simultaneous. For example: ‘The country’s army had no time to respond due to the concurrent attacks by sea, land and air.’
CONDITIONAL CLAUSE:
(grammar term) A sentence that has an ‘if’ statement – can be zero, 1st, 2nd, 3rd or mixed). Example: ‘If students study hard, they have a better chance of success’. (This is a zero conditional clause)
CONDUCT:
(noun) Behaviour, ways, manner. For example: ‘The high standard of conduct expected of children at the school is important in helping them learn lessons for later in life.’
CONFER:
(verb) Consult, discuss. For example: ‘Education institutions should confer more with parents to discuss solutions to the growing problem of children missing school.’
CONFIDENT:
(adjective) Having no doubts; to be sure; being self-assured. Example: ‘It is important to appear confident in an interview situation’.
CONFINE:
(verb) Constrict, limit. For example: ‘A number of countries are now confining cigarette smoking to outside areas only in public places.’
CONFIRM:
(verb) Check, verify. For example: ‘It is shop owners’ responsibility to confirm their customers are old enough to buy cigarettes by asking them to provide identification.’
(noun) CONFIRMATION Example: ‘A confirmation has been made for the booking next month’.
CONFLICTING:
(adjective) Differing, opposite. For example: ‘There are a number of conflicting opinions on whether technology has improved or reduced quality of life.’
CONFORM:
(verb) Fit in with, follow rules of conduct, match. For example: ‘Younger people nowadays find it difficult to conform to the rules of society.’
CONFRONTATIONAL:
(adjective) The state of being argumentative or in opposition. Example: ‘Some teenagers can become confrontational when talking to their parents’.
CONFUSE:
(verb) To mix up, to not understand correctly. Example: “It can be easy to confuse tenses in English grammar’.
CONNECT:
(verb) To link, to join. Example: ‘In English, you can connect ideas with linking words’.
CONSCRIPTION:
(noun) Compulsory recruitment into the military. Example: ‘Many countries still have conscription’.
CONSENT:
To AGREE
CONSEQUENT:
(adjective) Resulting, following. For example: ‘A number of people were concerned about the change in government policy and the consequent protests were no surprise.’
CONSIDER:
(verb) Think carefully about. Example: ‘You need to consider possible synonyms for keywords before scanning the reading passage for the answer’.
CONSIDERABLE:
(adjective) Large, sizeable, substantial. For example: ‘A recent survey showed that a considerable number of parents have little knowledge regarding the signs of drug use.’
CONSIST:
(verb) Be made up of. For example: ‘The main basis of his argument consisted of the facts and figures he had direct from the survey.’
CONSONANT:
(noun). Letters in the alphabet that are not a,e,i,o or u.
Some words can begin with a vowel but have a consonant sound. Example: university (yoo-ni-ver-si-ty), uniform (yoo-ni-form).
CONSTANT:
(adjective) Continual, endless. For example: ‘There have been constant problems since the new policy has been introduced.’
CONSTITUENT PARTS:
(noun phrase) Parts or ingredients that together make a whole. Example: ‘There are many constituent parts to a car engine’.
CONSTITUTE:
(verb) Comprise, make up, form. For example: ‘The research I have collected constitutes a very good basis for my assignment.’
CONSTRAIN:
(verb) Limit, restrict, hinder. For example: ‘In order to constrain the increasing use of illegal drugs, stricter penalties should be introduced.’
CONSTRUCT:
(verb) Build, put together, make. For example: ‘It is important to construct a solid argument for your essay and making notes beforehand helps enormously.’
CONSULT:
(verb) Ask, check with. For example: ‘It is important for patients to consult their doctor before taking any additional medication.’
CONSUME:
(verb)
1. to expend by use; use up. ‘Cities consume a high percentage of a country’s energy, due to the high populations living there.’
2. to eat or drink up; devour. ‘Many people consume a great deal of junk food ona  regular basis.’
3. to destroy, as by decomposition or burning: Fire consumed the forest.
4. to spend (money, time, etc.) wastefully.
5. to absorb; engross: consumed with curiosity.
CONTACT:
(verb). Write to/speak to, get in touch with. Example: ‘It is the school’s responsibility to contact parents of children they suspect are taking drugs.’
CONTAIN:
(verb) To include, to hold within. Example: ‘The IELTS reading and listening tests both contain 40 questions.’
CONTEMPORARY:
(adjective). Modern. Example: ‘In my opinion contemporary novels are more interesting and true to life than classic literature.’
CONTEXT:
(noun). Perspective, background. Example: ‘A good essay will put all ideas and arguments into a clear context.’
CONTINENTS:
Groups of countries; large masses of land. For example: Europe, Asia
CONTRACT:
(noun). Written and signed agreement, legally binding document. Example: ‘An employment contract protects the rights of both employer and employee.’
CONTRADICT:
(verb). Disagree with, challenge the view of, oppose. Example: ‘The findings in the new research project contradict those from the earlier survey.’
CONTRARY:
(adjective). Opposite. Example: ‘There are many contrary opinions to this view.’
CONTRARY (On the contrary):
(noun). Opposite. Example: ‘Sensible exercise has no ill effects on the body; on the contrary it brings enormous benefits.’
CONTRAST:
(noun). Difference, strong dissimilarity. Example: ‘There is enormous contrast between the landscapes of the two countries.’
CONTRIBUTE:
(verb). Add, give. Example: ‘Older workers in the work force are important as they contribute their experience, wisdom and patience.’
CONTROVERSIAL:
(adjective) Arguable, disputable, likely to cause disagreement. Example: ‘The government’s decision to reduce funding of public healthcare was controversial.’
CONTROVERSY:
(noun). Arguement, disagreement. Example: ‘A decision to fine parents of children who are not attending school would cause a huge amount of controversy.’
CONVENE:
(verb). Come together, assemble. Example: ‘United Nations representatives will convene in Europe next month.’
CONVENTIONAL:
(adjective) Following accepted customs and traditions. Example: ‘In western countries, it is conventional for the bride to wear a white dress on her wedding day.’
CONVERT:
(verb). Change, alter from one use or purpose to another. Example: ‘In many parts of the world forest land has been converted to agricultural land and this has impacted on the environment.’
CONVINCE:
(verb). Persuade, encourage another to believe a point of view. Example: ‘It has been difficult to convince the general public of the dangers related to this.’
COOPERATE:
(verb) Work together. For example: ‘It is important for Governments of different countries to cooperate together to find a solution to global warming.’
COORDINATE:
(verb) Organise, bring together. For example: ‘The conference will require a huge amount of organisation so the company has appointed an Events Manager to coordinate the project.’
CORE:
(adjective) Central, main. For example: ‘The company is involved in many different areas of business but its core business is computer software.’
CORPORAL PUNISHMENT:
(noun phrase) Physical punishment. Example: ‘Corporal punishment, such as caning, is now banned in many schools.’
CORPORATE:
(adjective) Business or company related, commercial. For example: ‘It is relatively easy to find out information at companies these days as on the web there are numerous sites holding corporate information.’
CORRELATION:
(noun) A connection or link between things. Example: ‘There is a correlation between healthy living and lifespan’.
CORRESPOND:
(verb) Match, match up to, relate to. For example: ‘The findings from this research project correspond with those from earlier studies.’
COUNTERPART:
(noun) Equal, equivalent. Example: ‘A prime minister is the counterpart of a president’.
COUPLE WITH:
(verb) Combine, link, join. For example: ‘Rising unemployment amongst graduates coupled with increasing costs to study at university have resulted in the decreasing enrolments into university programmes.’
CREATE:
(verb) Make, invent, produce, generate. For example: ‘The arrival of the new factory has created a number of job opportunities for local people.’
CREDIT:
(noun) Praise, recognition, acclaim. For example: ‘Nursing staff are often not given enough credit for the difficult job they perform.’
CRITERIA:
(noun) Condition related to a situation. For example: ‘The successful candidate for the job must meet all the criteria laid down in the job description.’
CRUCIAL:
(adjective) essential, necessary, vital. For example: ‘It is crucial that governments provide good education opportunities for teenagers to ensure a successful future for the country.’
CULPABLE:
(noun) The state of being guilty of doing something. ‘He is culpable for the damage his children caused.’
CULTURE:
(noun) Society, traditon, customs, way of life. For example: ‘It is an important education for people to experience different cultures as it allows them the opportunity to better understand people from countries different to their own.’
CURE:
(noun) Treatment, solution. Example: ‘Many people are searching for a cure for the common cold’.
CURRENCY:
(noun) Money, exchange. For example: ‘Currency exchange in Europe is no longer an issue as the majority of countries use the Euro.’
CYCLE:
(noun) Series, sequence. For example: ‘Students may be required to describe a process for Task 1 of the writing exam, for example the Water Cycle which describes the journey of water from land to sky and back again.’

IELTS English Vocabulary – D

D
DAMAGE:
(verb) Destroy or break. Example: ‘The tornado damaged a large number of houses’.
DATA:
(noun) Statistics, figures, information. For example: ‘The most accurate data available on a country’s population is probably found in Census information collected every four years in a Government survey.’
DEADLINE:
(noun) The time by which something must be done or completed. Example: ‘The deadline for finishing the report is next Tuesday’.

DEATH PENALTY:
When the punishment for a crime means you will be killed, this is the death penalty. See also: CAPITAL PUNISHMENT
DEBATE:
(noun) Discussion, argument. For example: ‘Controversial subjects such as capital punishment often attract heated debate.’
DEBT:
(noun) Something owed; needs to be repaid. Example: ‘Many students amass a large debt while studying.’
DECADE:
(noun) Ten year period. For example: ‘Almost certainly violent crime has increased dramatically over the last decade.’
DECLINE:
(noun) A weakening, a fall off, a drop off. For example: ‘Fortunately, there has been a decline in the number of cigarette smokers over recent years.’
DEDUCE:
(verb) Figure out, reason, work out. For example: ‘It can be deduced from the information given that the problem is likely to continue.’
DEDUCTION:
(noun) A conclusion drawn from evidence. Example: ‘The deduction made was clearly logical.’
DEFINE:
(verb) Identify, describe. For example: ‘The main responsibilities of a job are defined in the job description.’
DEFINITE:
(adjective) Certain, sure. For example: ‘Scientists know that there are definite links between cigarette smoking and lung cancer, though the causes of many other cancers as still unknown.’
DEMONSTRATE:
(verb) To show. Example: ‘It is important to demonstrate a range of accurate grammar in your IELTS essay’.
DENOTE:
(verb) Indicate, stand for, identify. For example: ‘Many road accidents are caused because drivers do not understand the Highway Code and ignore road signs which denote the need for caution.’
DENY:
(verb) Disallow, refuse. For example: ‘The students were denied the right to longer holidays despite their protests.’
DEPRESS:
(verb) Weaken, cause to drop. For example: ‘The Government should take action in reducing inflation as many people are worried that it will depress the economy even further.’
DERIVE:
(verb) Arrive at (from reasoning). For example: ‘This conclusion can logically be derived from the information given.’
DESCRIPTION:
(noun) A statement that describes something. Example: ‘For Task I writing, you may have to give a description of a diagram’.
DESIGN:
(verb) Invent, create. For example: ‘The Head of the Marketing Department has designed a new marketing strategy which will hopefully bring more business to the company.’
DESPITE:
(preposition) In spite of, even with. For example: ‘Despite the Government’s efforts to increase safety of citizens, the level of crime has continued to increase.’
DETECT:
(verb) Form an inpression, find out, discover. For example: ‘From the reaction of the staff, it was easy to detect that they were unhappy with the new proposal.’
DETERIORATE:
(verb) To get worse. For example: ‘The situation has deteriorated’.
DETRACT FROM:
(verb) reduce value or importance of something. Example: ‘His negative comments detracted from the enjoyment of the evening’.
DEVIATE:
(verb) Move away from, differ. For example: ‘A large number of young people today like to deviate from the norm of their society.’
DEVICE:
(noun) Machine, tool, gadget. For example: ‘Electronic devices such as mobile phones have improved our ability to communicate’
DEVOTE:
(verb) dedicate, give, alot. For example: ‘It is important to devote adequate time to studying for an exam to ensure a good result.’
DIALOGUE:
(noun) A conversation. Example: ‘In Parts One and Three of the listening test, you will hear a dialogue between two or more people and you will have to answer questions.’
DIFFERENTIATE:
(verb) Tell apart, distinguish, see the difference between. For example: ‘It is important for teachers to differentiate between the different skills and abilities of their students to ensure they all get a good education.’
DIMENSION:
(noun) Aspect, feature, factor. For example: ‘The subject has many dimensions which must be taken into consideration when formulating a rounded argument.’
DIMINISH:
(verb). Reduce, weaken, detract from (authority, reputation, prestige, responsibility). Example: ‘Many people are unhappy when laws are introduced which seem to diminish parents’ responsibility for their own children.’
DIRECTION:
(noun) Route, focus, aim. Example: ‘The introduction of a report shows the direction and main ideas included in the body’.
DISADVANTAGED:
Not having an equal situation to something or someone else; when something or someone has less than other people have.
DISCHARGE:
(verb) 1. To fire a weapon. ‘He discharged the gun’
(verb) 2. To release. let go. ‘The patient was discharged from hospital this morning’.
DISCRETE:
(adjective) Separate, disconnected. For example: ‘The Council is made up of there discrete divisions and communication between them is often difficult.’
DISCRIMINATE:
(verb) Show prejudice. For example: ‘Companies should not discriminate against older workers because of their age as their knowledge, experience and maturity can be of great benefit to a business.’
DISMISS:
(verb) Choose to ignore; decide something is unimportant. Example: ‘The CEO dismissed the idea of higher wages for staff’.
DISORDER:
(noun) Illness, syndrome. Example: ‘Many learning disorders have now been identified.’
DISPARITY:
 (noun) A difference, something that is not similar. Example: ‘There are disparities in economic stability in different regions’.
See also: INEQUALITY
DISPLACE:
(verb) move or shift from usual position. For example: ‘Due to the enormous damage to property a large number if people were displaced due to the damage caused by earthquake.’
DISPLAY:
(verb) show, present. For example: ‘By law, motorists must display a current tax disc in the windscreen of their vehicle.’
DISPOSE OF:
(verb) Get rid of, throw away. For example: ‘It is our duty as citizens to dispose of rubbish responsibly.’
DISTINCT:
(adjective) clear, defintie, noticeable. For example: ‘The bar chart shows that there is a distinct variation in purchasing habits over the period shown.’
DISTORT:
(verb) Alter, warp, misrepresent. For example: ‘The facts received were so distorted that it was difficult to know the truth of the matter.’
DISTRIBUTE:
(verb) Spread, give out. For example: ‘It is the Council’s responsibility to distribute information leaflets on this topic to ensure that the public are aware.’
DIVERSE:
(adjective) Varied, including different types. For example: ‘Cities such as London for example, are interesting as the population there is made up of many cultures and is so diverse.’
DIVISION:
(noun) Differences in standard between two or more things. Example: ‘There are divisions in wealth between different areas of the country’.
DOCUMENT:
(noun) Report, file, paper. For example: ‘A marriage certificate is an example of a legally-binding document.’
DOGMATIC:
(adjective) Describing opinions or beliefs that are unproven but presented as facts. Example: ‘It is important that you state your opinions in an appropriate manner and are not dogmatic.’
DOMAIN:
(noun) Area. sphere. For example: ‘The domain of computer science involves many sub areas.’
DOMESTIC:
(adjective) Within a country, internal, national. For example: ‘A number of countries generate much higher income from business in their international markets than from domestic sales.’
DOMINATE:
(verb) Rule, control, lead, govern, overshadow. For example: ‘Use of Microsoft products is so widespread it can be said that they dominate the software industry.’
DRAFT:
(verb) Draw up, prepare, plan. For example: ‘I need to draft a proposal before the meeting next week.’
DRAMA:
(noun) Crisis, commotion. For example: ‘The proposed changes to the education system have caused quite a drama in the newspapers recently.’
DRAMATIC:
(adjective) Signiificant, large, major. “There was a dramatic rise in the cost of production.”
DRAWBACK:
(noun) a problem, a weakness. Example: ‘One drawback of living in a foreign country is that you may not be able to communicate so easily’.
DULL:
(adjective) Not interesting; boring. Example: ‘Some technical books can be very dull to read.’
DURATION:
(noun) Period, length of time. For example: ‘Exam candidates are not allowed to talk at all for the full duration of the exam.’
DYNAMIC:
(adjective) Continually changing or progressing. For example: ‘The IT industry is extremely dynamic with huge investment into Research and Development. ‘

IELTS English Vocabulary – E

E
ECONOMY:
(noun) Financial system, financial market. For example: ‘The strength of the country’s economy has attracted the interest of foreign investors.’
EDIT:
(verb) Correct, alter, improve. For example: ‘My lecturer has offered to edit the first part of my thesis to ensure I am writing correctly.’
EFFECT:
(noun) What happens; the result. Example: ‘The effect of climate change is unpredictable.’

EFFECTIVE:
(adjective) Efficient, successful, useful. Example: ‘ILSNZ Online IELTS is an effective way to study’.
EFFICIENTLY:
(adverb) Time saving; productively. Example: ‘It is important to use your time in the IELTS test efficiently to get a good result’.
ELEMENT:
(noun) Part, component, factor. For example: ‘Certain elements of society are not contributing properly to the overall success of the country.’
ELIMINATE:
(verb) Get rid of, remove. For example: ‘It is the Government’s responsibility to eliminate the problem of drug use in society.’
EMERGE:
(verb) Appear, materialise, come to light. For example: ‘Our medical knowledge improves almost daily and new cures for disease continue to emerge.’
EMMIGRATION:
(noun) To leave your home country to live in another place. See also IMMIGRATION.
Example: John is from England. He now lives in New Zealand. He has emmigrated from England and immigrated to New Zealand.
EMOTIVE:
(adjective) Sensitive, affecting, stimulating emotion. Example: ‘He gave a highly emotive speech.’
EMPHASIS:
(noun) Importance, weight, stress. For example: ‘There should be more emphasis on increasing the number of disabled people in the workforce.’
EMPHASISE:
(verb) To reinforce, to restate, to highlight. Example: ‘When you write a conclusion to your essay, you should emphasise your main argument.’
EMPIRICAL:
(adjective) Observed, practical. For example: ‘Empirical research is required to obtain confirmation that the theories are correct.’
ENABLE:
(verb) Allow, make possible. For example: ‘Government should subsidise entry fees to museums and art galleries to enable a higher number of people to visit. ‘
ENCOUNTER:
(verb) Come across, come in contact with, meet. Example: ‘When travelling abroad tourists have the opportunity to encounter many interesting people and learn a great deal about a different culture’.
ENCOURAGEMENT:
(noun) Support, inspiration, confidence-building. Example: ‘Students achieve better results with encouragement from parents and teachers.’
ENERGY:
(noun) Power, force, vigour. For example: ‘A great deal of energy from members of the team will be required to ensure the success of the new venture.’
ENFORCE:
(verb) Make compulsory, insist on. For example: ‘It is important for schools to enforce school rules strictly as students learn important lessons which will be useful later in life.’
ENHANCE:
(verb) Improve, add to. For example: ‘Access to parks and gardens enhances the quality of life of city dwellers.’
ENORMOUS:
(adjective) huge, massive, vast. For example: ‘Industrial activity has an enormous impact on the environment.’
ENQUIRE:
(verb) To find out about, to ask for information about. Example: ‘For bus timetables, you need to enquire at the main office.’
Also spelled ‘inquire’
ENROL:
(verb) To join, to sign up. Example: ‘New students have to enrol in the course before Monday’.
ENSURE:
(verb) Make sure, make certain. For example: ‘It is the duty of a parent to ensure that their child has access to a solid education’
ENTITLED:
To have the right to claim something. For example: ‘If you are not happy with your IELTS result, you are entitled to ask them to check your exam again.’
ENTITY:
(noun) Body, unit. For example: ‘Although they are both Government organisations they are completely separate entities.’
ENVIRONMENT:
(noun) Natural world, nature, ecosystem. For example: ‘More people should use public transport due to the negative impact of cars on the environment.’
EQUATE:
(verb) Liken, compare, connect. For example: ‘Society often equates old age with weakness and dependence.’
EQUIDISTANT:
(adjective) Equal distance between things. Example: ‘The school is equidistant from the railway station and the hospital – it only take 5 minutes to walk to each place.’
EQUIP:
(verb) Prepare, train, get (someone) ready. For example: ‘It is important that the education received at school equips students with skills they will require in the working world.’
EQUIPPED WITH:
(adjective phrase) Having the required equipment or tools to do something. Example: ‘A lot of holiday accommodation is equipped with everything you need to cook a meal.’
EQUIVALENT:
(adjective) Equal, the same, comparable. For example: ’40 degrees celsius is equivalent to 104 degrees fahrenheit.’
ERODE:
(verb) Wear away, wear down. For example: ‘Valleys are formed when rivers erode away the land.’
ERROR:
(noun) A mistake. Example: ‘There are a number of common errors made by IELTS candidates’.
ESSENTIAL:
(adjective) Something you must have or do. Example: Water is essential for survival.
ESTABLISH:
(verb) Set up, start, begin. For example: ‘The company is establishing a new arm of the business in Asia next year.’
ESTATE:
(noun) Assets, property, wealth. For example: ‘He has left his estate to his children and grandchild in the event of his death.’
ESTIMATE:
(verb) Calculate approximately, assess. For example: ‘It is estimated that the new building will cost around $6.5million dollars to build.’
ETHIC:
(noun) Set of principles, moral values. For example: ‘Companies can encourage a strong work ethic in their employees through fair treatment and by offering favourable work conditions.’
ETHNIC:
(adjective) of a particular group of people or culture. For example: ‘London’s population is made up of many different ethnic groups..’
EVALUATE:
(verb) Assess, appraise. For example: ‘The company evaluates its performance by monitoring various aspects of the business carefully.’
EVENTUAL:
(adjective) Ultimate, final. For example: ‘The organisation needs to increase its sales turnover or we can expect its eventual closure.’
EVIDENT:
(adjective) Clear, obvious, apparent. For example: ‘It is evident from the graph that 18-25 year olds were the biggest purchasers of CDs in the period shown’
EVOLVE:
(verb) Develop, grow, progress. For example: ‘The small home-based business evolved into a major company over a period of five years.’
EXACT:
(adjective) Correct, accurate, precise. Example: ‘For some IELTS reading questions, you need to answer using exact words from the passage. You are not allowed to use your own words’.
EXCEED:
(verb) Go beyond, surpass. For example: ‘It is irresponsible for drivers to exceed the speed limit, particularly in areas around schools.’
EXCESSIVE:
(adjective) Too much. Example: ‘Excessive drinking is becoming a problem among teenagers in many countries.’
EXCLUDE:
(verb) Keep out, leave out. For example: ‘In extreme cases schools will often exclude students from school as punishment if they continue to misbehave.’
EXEMPLARY:
(adjective) Perfect. Example: ‘The student was given an award for exemplary behaviour’.
EXHIBIT:
(verb) Show, display. For example: ‘He exhibits the talent to be a very good athlete one day.’
EXPAND:
(verb) Grow, become larger. For example: ‘The organisation has expanded its manufacturing operation since it won the Government contract.’
EXPENDITURE:
(noun) Spending, outgoings, expenses. Example: ‘For the majority of families, the biggest monthly expenditure is on mortgage repayments’.
EXPERT:
(noun) Specialist. For example: ‘Some experts claim that there is a link between violence in children and playing of violent video games.’
EXPLANATION:
(noun) A statement made to make something understandable. Example: ‘My teacher gave a very good explanation of how to improve my writing’.
EXPLICIT:
(adjective) Open, graphic, uninhibited. For example: ‘Many people believe that the pictures we see on the news nowadays of war and suffering are much too explicit.’
EXPLOIT:
(verb) Take advantage of, ill use. For example: ‘Laws protecting workers are necessary to prevent some employers from exploiting their rights.’
EXPORT:
(verb) Sell overseas. For example: ‘The country is very self-sufficient and exports significantly more produce than it needs to import. ‘
EXPOSE:
(verb) Bring attention to, reveal publicly. For example: ‘It is important for the media to have freedom to publish as often scandals are exposed by their investigations.’
EXPOSE TO:
(verb) Bring / come into contact with. Example: ‘Skin needs to be protected when it is exposed to the sun’.
EXPRESS:
(verb) To communicate, to say. Example: ‘An increasing number of people are expressing concern regarding our impact on the environment.’
EXTEND:
(verb) To make bigger; to make longer. Example: ‘You should try to extend your answers as much as possible without repeating yourself in the IELTS speaking test.’
EXTENSION:
(noun) Addition or something extra. Example: ‘The student asked for an extension on their assignment as they couldn’t finish on time’.
EXTENSION QUESTION:
(noun phrase) A question that asks for more detailed information on a topic you have already discussed.  Example: ‘Towards the end of the IELTS speaking test, you wil be asked some extension questions related to the topic card you spoke about.’
EXTERNAL:
(adjective) Outside. For example: ‘The company will be audited by an external auditor next week.’
EXTRACT:
(noun) A part/passage from a literary work or speech. For example: ‘The author will read an extract from his latest book at the book signing next week.’

IELTS English Vocabulary – F – H

F
FACILITATE:
(verb) Help, aid, make easy. For example: ‘Agreement and cooperation between the two Governments has helped to facilitate the programme.’
FACILITIES:
(noun) Amenities, services available. Example: ‘The facilities at the new leisure centre are excellent.’

FACTOR:
(noun) issue, feature, aspect, reason. For example: ‘There are a number of factors which influence an increase in crime.’
FAMILIARITY:
(noun) Sense of knowing something very well. Example: ‘With familiarity, it becomes easier to have conversations in English’.
FEATURE:
(noun) characteristic, trait, quality. For example: ‘The computer programme has a number of features which are extremely user-friendly.’
FEDERAL:
(adjective) Centralised (related to Government). For example: ‘The Federal Government of the U.S.A. controls laws and issues relating to all States.’
FEE:
(noun) Charge, payment. For example: ‘Entry to the park used to be free but now visitors are asked to pay a small fee.’
FILE:
(noun) Report, profile, record. For example: ‘A CV and copy of qualifications are kept in the staff file of each employee.’
FINAL:
(adjective) Last, ending. For example: ‘The final point relating to this issue is the most significant’
FINANCE:
(noun) Money, funding. For example: ‘Hospitals in the public sector often have difficulty obtaining enough finance to provide quality healthcare.’
FINITE:
(adjective) Limited, set. For example: ‘Fossil fuels, such as coal, are a finite resource and it is important to find an alternative before supplies are used up completely.’
FIRST HAND:
(adjective) From personal experience or from the original source. Example: ‘Overseas volunteers get first hand experience of problems some people face in poorer countries.’
FLEXIBLE:
(adjective) Adaptable, open to change. For example: ‘Hours worked by students in part-time jobs need to be flexible so they can take time off if necessary for revision.’
FLOWCHART:
(noun) A diagram showing the sequence of events. Example: ‘The process was explained clearly by use of a flowchart’.
FLUCTUATE:
(verb) Vary, change, rise and fall. For example: ‘It can be seen from the graph that expenditure fluctuated from March to July, after which it steadily increased.’
FLUENCY:
(noun) A measure of how clear and connected your speech is. Example: ‘He knows a lot of grammar, but has difficulty speaking – he has very poor fluency’.
FOCUS:
(verb) Direct attention towards a central, focal point. For example: ‘The majority of people seem to agree that the Government should focus on increasing job opportunities for school leavers.’
FORMAT:
(noun) Arrangement, layout, design. For example: ‘I like the format of the new text book, it is clear and easy to follow.’
FORMULA:
(noun) Method, recipe, blueprint. For example: ‘Many movies these days are not based upon new ideas, simply new actors and locations following an old formula.’
FORTHCOMING:
(adjective) Approaching, coming soon, imminent. For example: ‘The forthcoming election is likely to result in a change of Government.’
FOUND:
(verb) establish, set up. For example: ‘The university has a long history and was founded in 1903.’
FOUNDATION:
(noun) Base, basis. For example: ‘My business diploma has provided a good foundation for my studies, now I hope to study a Bachelor’s Degree.’
FRAMEWORK:
(noun) Structure, basis. For example: ‘The framework of the course includes all aspects of study which relate to my job.’
FRUSTRATING:
(adjective) Annoying, irritating. Example: ‘Learning a foreign language can be frustrating if there are not many opportunities to practise.’
FULLY:
(adverb) Completely, 100%. Example: ‘I fully understand his point of view’.
FUNCTION:
(verb) Purpose, meaning, role. For example: ‘The main function of the department is quality control.’
FUND:
(verb) Finance, support financially. For example: ‘Many university students take on part-time work to help to fund their studies.’
FURTHERMORE:
(adverb). Additionally, also. Example: ‘Drug use is illegal and furthermore it is damaging to health.’
G
GENDER:
(noun). Sex, male or female. Example: ‘Women in the workplace are still sometimes discriminated against because of their gender.’
GENERAL:
(adjective). Not particular or exact. Example: ‘I have a general idea as to what I will be studying on my course, but no specific information yet.’
GENERATE:
(verb). Produce, cause. Example: ‘It is hoped that the new advertising campaign will create enough interest to generate a huge increase in sales.’
GENERATION:
(noun). Age group, age bracket. Example: ‘It is often difficult to understand the thinking of people of different generations’
GENERIC:
(adjective) General, not specific. Example: ‘Generic sales letters are less successful than those personalised for the receiver.’
GET SIDETRACKED:
(Verb phrase) To lose focus. Example: ‘When reading an IELTS passage for specific information, it is important not to get sidetracked with small details.’
GLOBAL:
(adjective). Worldwide. Example: ‘Global awareness is increasing as more and more people travel and are able to experience different countries firsthand.’
GLOSSARY:
(noun) A list of words and explanations at the end of a text. Example: ‘Some IELTS reading passages will have a short glossary at the end’.
GOAL:
(noun). Objective, aim. Example: ‘The goal of the training programme is to improve communication within the team.’
good:
good
GRADE:
(noun). Score, mark. Example: ‘It is important to answer the question correctly in order to achieve a high grade in the exam.’
GRAMMAR TENSE:
(noun phrase) Structures used to show past, present or future. E.g. Present simple tense, past continuous tense.
GRAMMATICAL RANGE:
(noun phrase) A variety of sentence structures and tenses. Example: ‘It is important to demonstrate a wide grammatical range in the IELTS test.’
GRAMMATICALLY:
(Adverb) To do with grammar.
GRANT:
(noun). Financial subsidy to offer support. Example: ‘Government grants for higher education allow students from poorer families to also gain a university education.’
GRATEFUL:
(adjective) Thankful. Example: ‘I am very grateful to my teacher as I learned a lot from him’.
GRATITUDE:
(noun) A state of being thankful or grateful. Example: ‘Guests often show their gratitutde by bringing a small gift.’
GUARANTEE:
(verb). Assure, make certain. Example: ‘Many young people nowadays are deciding against going to university as they think that a university degree will not guarantee them a job.’
(noun) An assurance that something is protected. Example: ‘He got a three year guarantee with his new television’.
A guarantee is also called a warranty
GUIDELINE:
(noun). Suggested rule to follow. Example: ‘The Government has issued healthy eating guidelines to schools in an effort make school meals healthier.’
H
HENCE:
So, therefore, because. The government has increased taxes, hence many educated people are leaving for foreign countries to find work.
HIERARCHY:
(noun) A group of people or things arranged in order of rank or grade. Example: ‘Most larger corporations have a management hierarchy’.
HIGHLIGHT:
(verb). Draw attention to, emphasise. Example: ‘The increase in homeless people over recent years highlights the need for a better social welfare system.’
HONOUR:
(noun) Privilege. Example: ‘It was an honour to meet the Queen’.
HORIZONTAL:
(adjective) Parallel to level ground. Example: If you have backache, it is recommended that you remain horizontal in bed.
HUMANITARIAN:
(adjective) Caring, civilised, kind. Example: ‘Humanitarian organisations deliver food and supplies to poor communities all over the world.’
HYPOTHESIS:
(noun). Theory, assumption. Example: ‘The research conducted so far indicates that the hypothesis is accurate.’
HYPOTHETICAL:
(adjective) Theoretical, supposed. Example: ‘The presentation he gave was based based on a hypothetical situation.’

IELTS English Vocabulary – I – L

I
IDENTICAL:
(adjective) Exactly the same. ‘Identical twins share the same genetic make up’.
IDENTIFY:
(verb) To tell the difference between; to recognise. Example: ‘It is important to identify all parts of the graph before beginning to write your Task I essay’.
IDEOLOGY:
(noun) Belief system, values. Example: ‘The ideology of left wing and right wing political parties is different in a number of ways’.

IGNORANT:
(adjective) Unaware, lacking knowledge. ‘Travelling abroad broadens our knowledge and allows us to become less ignorant about other cultures.’
ILLUSTRATE:
(verb). Demonstrate, give an example, show. Example: ‘The example used in the lecture illustrated the theory we were being taught.’
ILLUSTRATION:
(noun) A picture or diagram. Example: ‘There is an illustration of the product on the box’.
IMAGE:
(noun). Impression, idea, view. Example: ‘The behaviour of a country’s citizens abroad influences the image of the country itself.’
IMAGINARY:
(adjective) made up; unreal. Example: ‘The characters in children’s books are usually imaginary’.
IMMIGRATION:
(noun) Moving into a country which is not your place of birth. See also EMMIGRATION
Example: John is from England. He now lives in New Zealand. He has emmigrated from England and immigrated to New Zealand.
IMPACT:
Having an influence or effect on something.
IMPLEMENT:
(verb) To put into action, to start. Example: ‘The changes will be implemented immediately’.
IMPLICATION:
(Noun) Consequence, related result. Example: ‘The implications of abuse of drugs such as ecstasy are still unknown’.
IMPLICIT:
(adjective) Not spoken but understood between two or more parties. Example: ‘We have an implicit agreement not to talk about the difficulty again. ‘
IMPLY:
(verb) Suggest, say something indirectly. Example: ‘Although my boss didn’t so say directly, he implied that my having a holiday then would be inconvenient’.
IMPOSE:
(verb) Make compulsory, force. Example: ‘In some countries, penalties are imposed on families who have more than one child’.
IN-DEPTH:
(adjective) Deeper, more detailed. Example: ‘Market researchers often conduct in-depth interviews to find out specific and detailed information. ‘
INADVISABLE:
(adjective) Not recommended. Example: It is inadvisable to carry a lot of money in your wallet. It is better to keep it in a bank’.
INCENTIVE:
(noun) Offering to encourage someone to do something. Example: ‘Incentives such as lower tax rates could encourage companies to expand their operations in rural areas’.
INCIDENCE:
(noun) occurance, situation. example: ‘There have been a number of incidences where children who have watched violent movies have acted violently themselves’.
INCOME:
(noun) Money coming in (often for working). Example: ‘It is important to have a job that gives a regular income’.
INCOMPLETE:
(adjective) Not whole, not finished. Example: ‘An essay is incomplete without a conclusion’.
INCONVENIENT:
(adjective) Problematic, awkward, badly timed. Example: ‘The meeting was inconvenient for everyone so the time was changed’.
(noun) INCONVENIENCE
INCORPORATE:
(verb) Include, add in. Example: Some parents believe it is wrong for schools to incorporate a sex education programme into their science classes.
INDEX:
(noun) Contents list  Example: The quickest way to search for content is to look in the index.
INDICATE:
(verb) To show or suggest. Example: “He indicated that he was bored.”
(noun = INDICATION) A sign showing or suggesting something.
INDIFFERENCE:
(noun)The state of not having an opinion one way or another. Example: ‘He showed his indifference clearly through his comment that he didn’t care who won the election’.
INDUSTRY:
(noun) Manufacturing and processing. Example: ‘The service sector is often bigger than the manufacturing industry in many developed countries’.
INEQUALITY:
(noun) A difference, something that is not equal. Example: “Even today, there are inequalities in the workplace for men and women’.
INEVITABLE:
(adjective) Unavoidable, certain. For example: ‘With advances in medical treatment, it is inevitable that the aging population will grow.’
INFER:
(verb) Assume, suppose, suggest. For example: ‘The message received infers there will be trouble ahead.’
INFORM:
(verb) To tell, to notify. Example: ‘You should inform the police if you see a crime’.
INFRASTRUCTURE:
(noun) Network, roads and rail. For example: ‘Government investment in the public transport infrasturcture will help encourage more people to use public transport.’
INFRINGEMENT:
(noun) A violation, a breach, an act against something. Example: ‘Some people believe that having to carry identification cards is an infrigement of our right to privacy.’
INHERENT:
(adjective) Essential, intrinsic. Hard work and dedication are inherent to success.
INHIBIT:
(verb) Hold back, prevent. For example: ‘Excess criticism can inhibit a child’s confidence to try new things.’
INITIAL:
(adjective) First, preliminary, original. For example: ‘My initial impressions of my new job were negative, though now I enjoy it.’
INITIATE:
(verb) Start, begin, make the first move. For example: ‘The Government should initiate a move towards more responsible recycling of rubbish.’
INJURE:
(verb) hurt, harm. For example: ‘Insurance often does not cover individuals who injure themselves whilst taking part in dangerous sports.’
INNOVATE:
(verb) make something new, something up to date. For example: ‘The company needs to innovate its image and products to attract younger customers who currently think it is old fashioned.’
INPUT:
(noun)Contribution of ideas, opinions, effort. For example: ‘The CEO asked for my input at the meeting, which shows he values my ideas.’
INSERT:
(verb) Put in, include, add in. For example: ‘Illustrations are often inserted into a text to make the information more interesting.’
INSIGHT:
(noun) Understanding, knowledge of a situation. For example: ‘World news reports allow people from developed countries an insight into the suffering of people in the developing world’
INSPECT:
(verb) Check, examine. For example: ‘The landlord will come to inspect our apartment for damage before we move out next week’
INSTANCE:
(noun) Situation, case, occasion. For example: ‘In this instance you will not be required to pay, though there is usually a fee’
INSTITUTE:
(noun) Institution, organization. For example: ‘The institution, which is responsible for medical research, was founded in 1970.’
INSTRUCT:
(verb) Command, order. For example: ‘The company has instructed workers not to talk to the media about the problem’
INSTRUCTIONS:
 (noun) What you have to do. For example: His instructions were to deliver the package to Mr Jones.
INSURMOUNTABLE:
(adjective) Cannot be solved or overcome. ‘An insurmountable problem’
INTEGRAL:
(adjective) Essential, central. For example: ‘Useful learning outcomes are intergral to a good education system’
INTEGRATE:
(verb) Mix in, become part of, join together. For example: ‘It is useful for immigrants to speak the language of the country they live if they wish to integrate properly into the community.’
INTEGRITY:
(noun) Having honesty, honour and reliability. For example: ‘He is well respected and known for his integrity.’
INTELLIGENCE:
(noun) Having intellect, cleverness. For example: ‘A sound education will allow anyone to develop their intelligence’
INTERACT:
(verb) The way people or things act and react to each other. Example: ‘When children go to nursery school or kindergarten, they can interact with others their own age’.
INTERCHANGE:
(verb) Subsitute, use two things for the same purpose. Example: ‘Native speakers of English interchange going to and the present continuous to talk about future plans and arrangements’.
INTERFERE:
(verb) Become too involved in something that does not concern you (often your help is not wanted). Example: ‘Some teenagers believe that their parents interfere too much in their decisions.’
INTERFERE WITH:
(verb) To have an impact on, to disturb, to interrupt. Example: ‘It is important your native language does not interefere with people’s ability to understand you when speaking English.’
INTERMEDIATE:
(adjective) Mid-level. For example: ‘Students with an intermediate level of English have problems getting a high IELTS result.’
INTERNAL:
(adjective) Inside, within. ‘Companies often conduct internal audits to be sure operations are running correctly’.
INTERPRET:
(verb) Translate into another language. For example: ‘The President’s speech was interpreted into a number of languages.’
INTERPRETATION:
(noun) Understanding, explanation. For example: ‘The newspaper’s interpretation of events was very different to the information I saw on the news.’
INTERVAL:
(noun) Gap, break. For example: ‘The weather forecast says it will rain most of tomorrow but that there will be brief sunny intervals.’
INTERVENE:
(verb) Get involved, interfere. For example:’The State should not intervene in the domestic affairs of its citizens’
INTRANSITIVE VERB:
(noun) A verb that requires an object. Example: like, meet.
INTRINSIC:
(adjective) essential, vital, fundamental. For example: ‘Fair discipline procedures are intrinsic to the successful running of a school’
INVERSE:
(adjective) Opposite; converse; opposing. Example: ‘There is an inverse relationship when something increases as the other decreases’.
INVERT:
(verb) To switch around, to reverse, to change order. Example: ‘It is possible to invert your sentence structure to show a wider range of structures in your writing. There was an increase in sales last month could become Last month, there was an increase in sales.’
INVEST:
(verb) put in, devote (time, effort, money). For example: ‘Parents invest a great deal of time, energy and money into the raising of their children.’
INVESTIGATE:
(verb) Look into, probe. For example: ‘The police are currently investigating the crime and hope to find the culprit soon.’
INVOLVE:
(verb) include, comprise. For example: ‘Setting up a new business involves a great deal of planning, risk and hard work.’
IRRELEVANT:
(adjective) Not useful or connected to the subject. Example: ‘You need to make sure that the points you include in your IELTS essay are related to the question. Do not include any irrelevant points.’
IRRESPONSIBLE:
(adjective) Not showing responsibility or maturity. Example: ‘It is irresponsible to drive while under the influence of alcohol’.
ISOLATED:
(adjective) Cut off, lonely, seperate. For example: ‘University students can often feel isolated at first when they move to a new town away from their friends and family.’
ISSUE:
(noun) Subject, topic, matter. For example: ‘The internet is a useful tool for keeping people informed of global issues.’
ITALICS:
(noun) A style of writing in which the letters of the words lean to the right. This sentence is written in italics.
ITEM:
(noun) Thing, article. For example: ‘The packaging of a huge number of items on our weekly shopping list is unneccessary and damaging to the environment.’
J
JOB:
(noun) work, role. For example: ‘Getting an interesting and well-paid job is the goal for most university graduates.’
JOURNAL:
(noun) academic publication, academic paper, periodical. For example: ‘Journals can sometimes be difficult to read as the language used is very academic.’
JUSTIFY:
(verb) Give good reason for, rationalise, excuse. For example: ‘Governments should be made to justify the high salaries of politicians.’
K
KEEP IN TOUCH:
To stay in communication with someone.
KEYWORDS:
(noun) The main words in a sentence that express the main ideas. Example: ‘In the reading test, you can find answers quickly and efficiently by looking for keywords.’
L
LABEL:
(verb) Mark, identify. For example: ‘Unhealthy foods containing additives or with high fat or sugar content should be clearly labelled.’
(noun) A tag showing title or information. Example: ‘In the IELTS test you should read any labels that are given on diagrams’.
LABOUR:
(noun) work. For example: ‘It is more beneficial to society to set up Labour Schemes for non-violent criminals rather than imprison them.’
LACK:
(verb) Not have something that is considered desirable or needed. Example: ‘Many elderly people lack the ability to surf the internet.’
LAW:
(noun) Decision made by a government; rule of a country. Example: ‘The government has just passed a law making it illegal to use a mobile phone while driving’.
LAYER:
(noun) level, tier. For example: ‘There are many layers to this problem.’
LECTURE:
(noun) university lesson, class. For example: ‘I often take a dictophone to my lectures as it can be difficult to understand all of the information.’
LECTURER:
 (noun) Similar to a teacher but presenting more academic subjects, often to a large group of people
LEGAL:
(adjective) Lawful, authorised by law. For example: ‘The death penalty is still legal in a number of countries.’
LEGALISE:
(verb) Make legal. Example: Some people believe that drugs such as cannabis should be legalised’.
LEGISLATE:
(verb) Pass laws. For example: ‘Many people believe that the Government legislates in private matters which do not concern it.’
LEGISLATION:
(noun) Legal matters; law. Example: ‘The government has introduced new legislation relating to schools.’
LESS ADVANTAGED:
(comparative adjective) Referring to people who have less than average (commonly referring to money or opportunities). Example: ‘It is difficult for less advantaged families to be able to buy their own home’.
LEVY:
(noun) tax. For example: ‘Levies in the country are so high that for finacial reasons people are choosing to live abroad.’
LEXICAL:
(adjective) Talking about vocabulary (words). For example: ‘He has a good lexical ability – he knows a lot of words’
LIBERAL:
(adjective) broad-minded, tolerant. For example: ‘Some people believe society is too liberal and that we should return to more traditional values.’
LICENCE:
(noun) Having the necessary qualifications. Example: A driver’s licence, a doctor’s license
LIFE EXPECTANCY:
(noun phrase) A prediction of the average time a person will live. Example: ‘Life expectancy in Japan is one of the highest in the world.’
LIKEWISE:
(adverb) Similarly, in the same way. For example: ‘Some people see no benefit in the arts and likewise have no interest in learning more about them.’
LIMIT:
 (noun) A top or bottom point. For example: If you drink three bottles of beer, you are over the limit to be able to drive.
LIMITATIONS:
(noun) Drawbacks, weak points, short comings. Example: ‘Although the argument has some good points, there are also some limitations.’
LIMITED:
(adjective) Restricted, kept within a certain amount. Example: ‘You have to answer some IELTS questions in a limited number of words.’
LINK:
(noun) Relationship, connection. For example: ‘Experts now believe there is a link between diet and bad behaviour in children.’
(verb) To make a connection, to join.
LINKING WORD:
(noun phrase) A word used to connect ideas. For example: and, yet, however.
LOCATE:
(verb) Find. track down. For example: ‘I could not locate the street on the map and had to ask for directions.’
LOGIC:
(noun) Reason, sense, common sense. For example: ‘The majority of people cannot see the logic behind the recent decision.’
LOGICAL:
(adjective) Makes sense, is reasonable. Example: ‘It is important to take a logical approach to the IELTS exam’.
(adverb: logically)
LOYAL:
To be faithful to someone or something. Example: ‘Dogs are very loyal pets’.