(noun phrase). Central focus. Example: ‘Paragraphs generally focus on a main message but also include supporting information’
(verb) Keep, sustain. For example: ‘The company has maintained its position as market leader by selling high quality products at low prices.’
(adjective) Huge, large. For example: ‘Alcohol and drug abuse is a major problem in some parts of society.’
(adjective) Change, alter (for own benefit) . For example: ‘Facts are often manipulated by the media to give news stories additional interest.’
(adjective) Physical, labour-intensive, blue-collar. For example: ‘Manual workers generally earn lower wages than skilled workers or professionals.’
(Noun) Level. For example: ‘It is important for companies to have a healthy profit margin.’
An area of low land that is always soft and wet because there is nowhere for the water to flow away to.
(verb) To fit together, to be equal. ‘Some IELTS questions require you to match information with a speaker’.
(adjective) Motivated and finding pleasure in physical possessions and objects displaying wealth. Example: ‘Many religions discourage their followers from being overly materialistic’.
(adjective) Responsible, stable through age and experience. For example: ‘Younger staff benefit from interaction with older workers as they learn from their mature outlook.’
(verb) expand, grow to full potential. For example: ‘Most companies wish to maximise their profits.’
(Noun) Physical or mental process. For example: ‘Behaviour and thought mechanisms vary from people to people.’
(Noun) newspapers, TV, magazines etc. For example: ‘It is important for the media to have freedom of speech.’
(verb) Act as a go between, encourage discussion between two parties. For example: ‘An independent advisor will mediate the talks between the company and its workers.’
(adjective) Related to medicine or health. For example: ‘There are proven medical benefits to taking regular exercise and eating a healthy diet.’
(noun) Method, vehicle, channel, mode. For example: ‘Email is nowadays the most popular medium for communication.’
(verb) To remember something completely; to learn by rote (with the suggestion that it is not learned, just remembered). Example: ‘It is not a good idea to memorise essays for the IELTS test as the examiner will recognise that the work is not your own’.
(adjective) Related to the mind or psychological state. For example: ‘Mental illness is often more difficult for others to understand than physical sickness.’
(verb) To talk about, to refer to. Example: ‘The subject was first mentioned at last week’s meeting.’
(Noun) way of doing something, system. For example: ‘Modern methods of teaching have replaced traditional methods in some schools.’
(verb) To move from one place to another or one country to another. See also EMIGRATION and IMMIGRATION
(Noun) Armed forces, army. For example: ‘Food and medical supplies will be delivered to the area as part of the Military’s rescus operation.’
(adjective) Smallest amount, minium amount. For example: ‘The recent Government campaign has had minimal effect and can be considerd a failure.’
(Verb) Make as small as possible. For example: ‘Parents should try to minimise the effect that divorce has on the their children.’
(Noun) Smallest amount, least amount. For example: ‘I can study the course in my own time, but it should take a minimum of 2 months to complete.’
(Noun) Bureau, Department, Authority. For example: ‘The Ministry of Health will release new healthy eating guidelines soon.’
(Adjective) Small, not of great significance. For example: ‘The minor issues on the agenda were not covered at the meeting as we ran out of time.’
(noun phrase) An additional verb used with a main verb. Example: should, can, might, would, will.
(Noun) Type, method, style. For example: ‘Bicycles are an environmentally-friendly mode of transport.’
(Verb) Adapt, adjust, change. For example: ‘We often modify our behaviour and speech depending on who we are talking to.’
(Verb) Observe, check, supervise. For example: ‘A baby’s deveopment is carefully monitored particularly in the early stages of growth.’
(noun) Bank loan for buying a house. Example: ‘Mortgage interest rates have increased significantly over the years in many countries’.
(adjective) Full of energy and purpose; aiming for a goal. Example: ‘It is important to keep motivated when studying, even when there are difficulties.’
(Noun) Reason, cause. For example: ‘The main motive to work for most people is to earn money.’
(adjective) Many. Example: ‘He had multiple injuries from the car crash’
(adjective) Joint, shared, common. For example: ‘Employment contracts betwwen employers and employees can be altered subject to mutual agreement.’
(adjective) When two things or people need or rely on each other.
(noun) Something needed or required. Example: ‘Water is a necessaity for life.’
(verb) Cancel out, counteract. For example: ‘The recent decision will negate all progress made before.
(noun) Connection, set of connections. For example: ‘A close network of friends is important to most people.’
(Adjective) Unbiased, not taking sides. For example: ‘During the war, the country remained neutral.’
(Adverb) Nontheless, yet. For example: ‘The project would be relatively inexpensive to set up, nevertheless it would be of great benefit.’
(noun) standard, average. For example: ‘It is no longer the norm in many cultures for the wife to stay at home full-time and look after the children.’
(adjective) Usual, standard, typical. For example: ‘Aerobic exercise is good for the heart because it raises the heartbeat above the normal level.’
(phrase) Not relevant; does not apply. Example: ‘If questions on an application form are not relevant, then you can write N/A meaning that it is not applicable to you.’
(noun) Idea, concept. For example: ‘The notion that one day people may live on other planets is almost impossible for us to visualise.’
(grammar term) A noun is the part of speech that is used to name a person, place, or thing. Nouns can be countable (chair, table, car) or uncountable (water, rice, air).
(adjective) Relating to atomic source. For example: ‘A nuclear war would be devastating for the world and its population.’
(adjective) Lots, many. Example: ‘There are numerous charities that collect money from donations’.
(Noun) Aim, purpose. For example: ‘The aims and objectives of the research project are found at the beginning of the report.’
(noun) No choice; need to do something. Example: ‘It is the parents’ obligation to take good care of their child.’
(verb) To get. Example: ‘Application forms can be obtained from the Admissions office’.
(adjective) Clear, evident. For example: ‘The obvious solution to the problem of passive smoking is to ban cigarette smoking in public places as some countries have already done.’
(verb) Take up, absorb. For example: ‘Marking and administration tasks occupy a large proportion of a teacher’s time.’
(verb) take place, happen. For example: ‘Problems in families often occur when communication breaks down.’
(noun) an insult. Example: ‘He took offence at her comment about his country.’
(verb) To leave out, not to include. ‘His name was omitted from the list’
(preposition) For. For example: ‘He thanked the guests for coming on my behalf as I had to leave early and couldn’t talk to everyone.’
(adjective) To be open to new ideas; tolerant. Example: ‘When travelling overseas, it is important to be open-minded about other cultures.’
(adjective) Opposite point of view, against. Example: ‘There are many opposing views on the subject of capital punishment’.
(verb) To choose. ‘He opted to take a few extra days holiday’.
(noun) Choice, alternative, opportunity. For example: ‘There are several options available to him and he must choose the best.’
You do not have to have this; you have a choice
(verb) Adjust to, get used to. For example: ‘The training week is designed so that new employees can orient themselves in the workplace.’
(noun) result, ending, conclusion. For example: ‘People around the world are hoping for a peaceful outcome to the situation.’
(noun) Production, yield. For example: ‘The factory is operational seven days a week and has continual output.’
(adverb) Largely, in the main, mainly. For example: ‘Although there were a few minor problems, overall the conference was a success.’
(verb) Coincide, have similarities. For example: ‘There are several areas where to two departments’ responsibilities overlap.’
(noun) abroad, in another country. For example: ‘In some countries people are resorting to having operations overseas as medical care there is cheaper.’
(verb) To manage, supervise or control. Example: ‘My manager is overseeing the project’.
(noun) A general idea, an outline. Example: ‘He gave an overview of the situation at the meeting, but did not go into all of the details.’