IELTS English Vocabulary – M – O

M
MAIN MESSAGE:
(noun phrase). Central focus. Example: ‘Paragraphs generally focus on a main message but also include supporting information’
MAINTAIN:
(verb) Keep, sustain. For example: ‘The company has maintained its position as market leader by selling high quality products at low prices.’
MAJOR:
(adjective) Huge, large. For example: ‘Alcohol and drug abuse is a major problem in some parts of society.’

MANIPULATE:

(adjective) Change, alter (for own benefit) . For example: ‘Facts are often manipulated by the media to give news stories additional interest.’
MANUAL:
(adjective) Physical, labour-intensive, blue-collar. For example: ‘Manual workers generally earn lower wages than skilled workers or professionals.’
MARGIN:
(Noun) Level. For example: ‘It is important for companies to have a healthy profit margin.’
Marsh:
An area of low land that is always soft and wet because there is nowhere for the water to flow away to.
MATCH:
(verb) To fit together, to be equal. ‘Some IELTS questions require you to match information with a speaker’.
MATERIALISTIC:
(adjective) Motivated and finding pleasure in physical possessions and objects displaying wealth. Example: ‘Many religions discourage their followers from being overly materialistic’.
MATURE:
(adjective) Responsible, stable through age and experience. For example: ‘Younger staff benefit from interaction with older workers as they learn from their mature outlook.’
MAXIMISE:
(verb) expand, grow to full potential. For example: ‘Most companies wish to maximise their profits.’
MECHANISM:
(Noun) Physical or mental process. For example: ‘Behaviour and thought mechanisms vary from people to people.’
MEDIA:
(Noun) newspapers, TV, magazines etc. For example: ‘It is important for the media to have freedom of speech.’
MEDIATE:
(verb) Act as a go between, encourage discussion between two parties. For example: ‘An independent advisor will mediate the talks between the company and its workers.’
MEDICAL:
(adjective) Related to medicine or health. For example: ‘There are proven medical benefits to taking regular exercise and eating a healthy diet.’
MEDIUM:
(noun) Method, vehicle, channel, mode. For example: ‘Email is nowadays the most popular medium for communication.’
MEMORISE:
(verb) To remember something completely; to learn by rote (with the suggestion that it is not learned, just remembered). Example: ‘It is not a good idea to memorise essays for the IELTS test as the examiner will recognise that the work is not your own’.
MENTAL:
(adjective) Related to the mind or psychological state. For example: ‘Mental illness is often more difficult for others to understand than physical sickness.’
MENTION:
(verb) To talk about, to refer to. Example: ‘The subject was first mentioned at last week’s meeting.’
METHOD:
(Noun) way of doing something, system. For example: ‘Modern methods of teaching have replaced traditional methods in some schools.’
MIGRATE:
(verb) To move from one place to another or one country to another. See also EMIGRATION and IMMIGRATION
MILITARY:
(Noun) Armed forces, army. For example: ‘Food and medical supplies will be delivered to the area as part of the Military’s rescus operation.’
MINIMAL:
(adjective) Smallest amount, minium amount. For example: ‘The recent Government campaign has had minimal effect and can be considerd a failure.’
MINIMISE:
(Verb) Make as small as possible. For example: ‘Parents should try to minimise the effect that divorce has on the their children.’
MINIMUM:
(Noun) Smallest amount, least amount. For example: ‘I can study the course in my own time, but it should take a minimum of 2 months to complete.’
MINISTRY:
(Noun) Bureau, Department, Authority. For example: ‘The Ministry of Health will release new healthy eating guidelines soon.’
MINOR:
(Adjective) Small, not of great significance. For example: ‘The minor issues on the agenda were not covered at the meeting as we ran out of time.’
MODAL VERB:
(noun phrase) An additional verb used with a main verb. Example: should, can, might, would, will.
MODE:
(Noun) Type, method, style. For example: ‘Bicycles are an environmentally-friendly mode of transport.’
MODIFY:
(Verb) Adapt, adjust, change. For example: ‘We often modify our behaviour and speech depending on who we are talking to.’
MONITOR:
(Verb) Observe, check, supervise. For example: ‘A baby’s deveopment is carefully monitored particularly in the early stages of growth.’
MORTGAGE:
(noun) Bank loan for buying a house. Example: ‘Mortgage interest rates have increased significantly over the years in many countries’.
MOTIVATED:
(adjective) Full of energy and purpose; aiming for a goal. Example: ‘It is important to keep motivated when studying, even when there are difficulties.’
MOTIVE:
(Noun) Reason, cause. For example: ‘The main motive to work for most people is to earn money.’
MULTIPLE:
(adjective) Many. Example: ‘He had multiple injuries from the car crash’
MUTUAL:
(adjective) Joint, shared, common. For example: ‘Employment contracts betwwen employers and employees can be altered subject to mutual agreement.’
MUTUALLY DEPENDENT:
(adjective) When two things or people need or rely on each other.
N
NECESSITY:
(noun) Something needed or required. Example: ‘Water is a necessaity for life.’
NEGATE:
(verb) Cancel out, counteract. For example: ‘The recent decision will negate all progress made before.
NETWORK:
(noun) Connection, set of connections. For example: ‘A close network of friends is important to most people.’
NEUTRAL:
(Adjective) Unbiased, not taking sides. For example: ‘During the war, the country remained neutral.’
NEVERTHELESS:
(Adverb) Nontheless, yet. For example: ‘The project would be relatively inexpensive to set up, nevertheless it would be of great benefit.’
NORM:
(noun) standard, average. For example: ‘It is no longer the norm in many cultures for the wife to stay at home full-time and look after the children.’
NORMAL:
(adjective) Usual, standard, typical. For example: ‘Aerobic exercise is good for the heart because it raises the heartbeat above the normal level.’
NOT APPLICABLE:
(phrase) Not relevant; does not apply. Example: ‘If questions on an application form are not relevant, then you can write N/A meaning that it is not applicable to you.’
NOTION:
(noun) Idea, concept. For example: ‘The notion that one day people may live on other planets is almost impossible for us to visualise.’
NOUN:
(grammar term) A noun is the part of speech that is used to name a person, place, or thing. Nouns can be countable (chair, table, car) or uncountable (water, rice, air).
NUCLEAR:
(adjective) Relating to atomic source. For example: ‘A nuclear war would be devastating for the world and its population.’
NUMEROUS:
(adjective) Lots, many. Example: ‘There are numerous charities that collect money from donations’.
O
OBJECTIVE:
(Noun) Aim, purpose. For example: ‘The aims and objectives of the research project are found at the beginning of the report.’
OBLIGATION:
(noun) No choice; need to do something. Example: ‘It is the parents’ obligation to take good care of their child.’
OBTAIN:
(verb) To get. Example: ‘Application forms can be obtained from the Admissions office’.
OBVIOUS:
(adjective) Clear, evident. For example: ‘The obvious solution to the problem of passive smoking is to ban cigarette smoking in public places as some countries have already done.’
OCCUPY:
(verb) Take up, absorb. For example: ‘Marking and administration tasks occupy a large proportion of a teacher’s time.’
OCCUR:
(verb) take place, happen. For example: ‘Problems in families often occur when communication breaks down.’
OFFENCE:
(noun) an insult. Example: ‘He took offence at her comment about his country.’
OMIT:
(verb) To leave out, not to include. ‘His name was omitted from the list’
on BEHALF:
(preposition) For. For example: ‘He thanked the guests for coming on my behalf as I had to leave early and couldn’t talk to everyone.’
OPEN-MINDED:
(adjective) To be open to new ideas; tolerant. Example: ‘When travelling overseas, it is important to be open-minded about other cultures.’
OPPOSING:
(adjective) Opposite point of view, against. Example: ‘There are many opposing views on the subject of capital punishment’.
OPT:
(verb) To choose. ‘He opted to take a few extra days holiday’.
OPTION:
(noun) Choice, alternative, opportunity. For example: ‘There are several options available to him and he must choose the best.’
OPTIONAL:
You do not have to have this; you have a choice
ORIENT:
(verb) Adjust to, get used to. For example: ‘The training week is designed so that new employees can orient themselves in the workplace.’
OUTCOME:
(noun) result, ending, conclusion. For example: ‘People around the world are hoping for a peaceful outcome to the situation.’
OUTPUT:
(noun) Production, yield. For example: ‘The factory is operational seven days a week and has continual output.’
OVERALL:
(adverb) Largely, in the main, mainly. For example: ‘Although there were a few minor problems, overall the conference was a success.’
OVERLAP:
(verb) Coincide, have similarities. For example: ‘There are several areas where to two departments’ responsibilities overlap.’
OVERSEAS:
(noun) abroad, in another country. For example: ‘In some countries people are resorting to having operations overseas as medical care there is cheaper.’
OVERSEE:
 (verb) To manage, supervise or control. Example: ‘My manager is overseeing the project’.
OVERVIEW:
(noun) A general idea, an outline. Example: ‘He gave an overview of the situation at the meeting, but did not go into all of the details.’
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IELTS English Vocabulary – P

P
PARADIGM:
(noun) Example, model. For example: ‘A paradigm to illustrate the situation follows.’
PARAGRAPH:
(noun) Section of a text. For example: ‘It is important to use paragraphs in essay writing as it is easier for the reader to follow the key ideas.’
PARALLEL:
(adjective) Similar, matching, equivalent. For example: ‘It is important for couples to have parrallel goals in life and beliefs.’

PARAMETER:
(noun) limit, boundary. For example: ‘The parameters of our knowledge are expanding all the time.’
PARAPHRASE:
(verb) To write about something again in another form or other words.
PARTICIPATE:
(verb) Take part in, join, join in. For example: ‘Over 200 companies will participate in next week’s exhibition.’
PARTICULARLY:
(adverb) To a great degree; especially. Example: ‘It is important to write clearly, particularly in your IELTS exam’.
PARTNER:
(verb) Unite, connect, link up. For example: ‘The two companies intend to partner together for the purpose of the project.’
PASSAGE:
(noun) A piece of reading with more than one paragraph. Example: ‘In the IELTS reading test, you have to answer questions about the passages given’.
PASSIVE:
(adjective) Not active, learnt through exposure not action. For example: ‘We are influenced in a passive way by many factors in our lives.’
PASSIVE TENSE:
A grammar term for a sentence that changes the subject and object. For example: ‘Someone has stolen my car’ (active) becomes ‘My car has been stolen’ (passive).
PATIENCE:
(noun) Quality of being tolerant, understanding or calm. Example: ‘When working with teenagers, it is necessary to have patience’.
PATIENT:
(noun) Someone who is receiving medical care
(adjective) Tolerant, understanding, calm. For example: ‘When training a dog, you need to be patient. Shouting at the animal will not help.’
PENALISE:
(verb) To punish, to give a penalty. Example: ‘Students who hand in their assignments late are penalised by losing a percentage of their marks’.
PENALTY:
(noun) Punishment; fine; consequence. Example: ‘The penalty for driving over the speed limit is strict in many countries.’
PERCEIVE:
(verb) Understand, comprehend. For example: ‘The attitudes of our parents influence the way in which we perceive the world.’
PERCENT:
(noun) proportion out of a hundred (%). For example: ‘According to the chart less than 8 percent of people never watch television.’
PERIOD:
(noun) Phase, time. For example: ‘While summer was very busy the company is now experiencing a quiet period.’
PERSPECTIVE:
(noun) Point of view, outlook, perception. For example: ‘It is important to consider the situation from more than one perspective.’
PHASE:
(noun) Period of time, temporary period. For example: ‘Many of us go through phases in our life when we have negative experiences.’
PHENOMENON:
(noun) Occurence, happening. For example: ‘As our understanding increases many previously unexplained phenomena can now be understood.’
Phenomenon – single
Phenomena – plural
PHILOSOPHY:
(noun) Viewpoint, way of life. For example: ‘Many traditional business philosophies are still taught and useful today.’
PHYSICAL:
(adjective) Bodily. For example: ‘Physical beauty is often wrongly valued over personality in our society.’
PLURAL:
(grammar term) More than one. Example: ‘The plural of shoe is shoes.’
PLUS:
(conjunction) More, added to. Example: Everything is half price plus they are giving away free accessories.
POINT OF VIEW:
(noun phrase) An opinion . Example: ‘It can sometimes be difficult to understand other peoples’ points of view.’
POLICY:
(noun) Rule, strategy, plan. For example: ‘The change in immigration policy has resulted in more people immigrating to the country.’
POPULATION:
The total number of people living in a place. For example: ‘The population of Japan is over 120 million.’
PORTION:
(noun) part, piece. For example: ‘The company invests a significant portion of its profits into research and development.’
POSITIVE:
(adjective) In support, not negative. For example: ‘Customers’ reaction to the new product has been positive and sales are expected to increase..’
POTENTIAL:
(noun) The full possible extent of ability or excellence. Example: ‘The course allows trainees to perform in their job to their full potential’
(adjective) Possible, probable, likely. For example: ‘The idea has a lot of potential benefits if put into place carefully.’
POVERTY:
(noun) The state of being poor (opposite=wealth) Example: ‘A large proportion of the developing world lives in poverty.’
PRACTIONER:
(noun) A person with a professional skill. For example: ‘A general practioner or G.P. refers patients to specialist doctors when necessary.’
PRECEDE:
(verb) come before, preface. For example: ‘He preceded his presentation with a welcome speech.’
PRECISE:
(adjective) Accurate, exact. For example: ‘The information given at the meeting was very precise.’
PREDICT:
(verb) Foretell, estimate. For example: ‘Experts predict that house prices will continue to rise.’
PREDICTION:
(noun) A guess, an estimation about the future. Example: ‘The prediciton that the world’s population will rise is probably correct.’
PREDOMINANT:
(adjective) Main, most common. For example: ‘The predominant reason people commit crime is lack of money.’
PREFERENCE:
(noun) A preferred choice; something you would rather have/do. Example: ‘They are both good universities, but my preference would be to study at the university in my hometown’.
PRELIMINARY:
(adjective) Initial, first. For example: ‘A preliminary hearing is often held before a major court case goes to trial.’
PREPOSITION:
(noun) A part of grammar that tells you about place or time. Examples:
on the table
between the chairs
at 12 p.m.
PRESSURE:
A force or a feeling that something has to be done.
PRESUME:
(noun) Assume, suppose. For example: ‘In many legal systems someone accused of commiting a crime is presumed innocent until proven guilty.’
PREVIOUS:
(adjective) Earlier, prior, before. For example: ‘The research results are similar to and support those in the previous study.’
PRIMARILY:
 (adverb) Most importantly, firstly
PRIMARY:
(adjective) Main, most important. For example: ‘The primary cause of skin cancer is over-exposure to the sun.’
PRIME:
(adjective) Major, key. For example: ‘His experience and qualifications make him a prime candidate for promotion.’
PRINCIPAL:
(noun) Head or boss of an operation (often a school). Example: ‘The school will have a new Principal from next semester’.
PRINCIPLE:
(noun) Idea, standard, belief. For example: ‘The principle behind offering free university education is to give equal opportunites to all.’
PRIOR:
(adjective) Previous, earlier. For example: ‘In the years prior to cheaper air travel, few people had the opportunity to experience different countries and their cultures.’
PRIORITY:
(noun) Factor of number one importance. For example: ‘The main priority when parents divorce should be the well-being of the children.’
PROCEED:
(verb) Go forward, begin, carry on. ‘Please proceed without me as I will be unable to attend the meeting’.
PROCESS:
(verb) Procedure, way of doing something. For example: ‘IELTS task 1 writing may involve describing a process, such as, for example, whiskey-making.’
PROFESSIONAL:
(adjective) Specialised, qualified, skilled or trained in a given area For example: ‘The country needs to attract more professional people into its workforce.’
(noun) Relating to people working in an educated field such as lawyers and accountants.
PROHIBIT:
(verb) ban, do not allow by law. For example: ‘Laws exist which prohibit the sale of alcohol and cigarettes to children.’
PROJECT:
(Noun) An undertaking involving effort. For example: ‘Improving public healthcare is a significant project for the Government.’
PROMOTE:
(verb) Advertise, publicise An undertaking involving effort. For example: ‘Improving public healthcare is a significant project for the Government.’
PROMOTION:
(noun) A raise in your job position. Example: ‘He was given a promotion from sales assistant to sales manager’
PROMPT:
(noun) Something used to help organise and structure ideas. Example: ‘Good public speakers write notes in the form of prompts to help them give a speech.’
PROPORTION:
(Noun) Amount, quantity, part. For example: ‘A number of companies donate a proportion of their profits to charity every year.’
PROPOSED:
(adjective) suggested, planned. Example: ‘The proposed building was rejected because of the cost’.
(verb) PROPOSE To suggest, to plan
(noun) PROPOSAL A suggestion, a suggested plan
PROSPECT:
(Noun) Opportunity, option, chance. For example: ‘The computer industry offers a range of job prospects to qualified people.’
PROTOCOL:
(Noun) Code of conduct, set of rules. For example: ‘Employees of the company are expected to follow a strict protocol.’
PROVIDE:
(verb) To give or offer. Example: ‘IELTS students need to provide evidence and examples to support their opinions.’
PSYCHOLOGY:
(Noun) Mental processes and behaviour, thoughts and emotions. For example: ‘Human psychology is extremely complex.’
PUBLIC TRANSPORT:
Buses and trains for example.
PUBLICATION:
(Noun) Printed work i.e. book, magazine, newspaper, journal. For example: ‘The author’s new publication is said to be his best.’
PUBLISH:
(Verb) Make public, make known. For example: ‘Not all facts are published and the General Public may not be aware of the dangers.’
PUNCTUAL:
Not late / on time.
PURCHASE:
(Verb) Buy. For example: ‘Identification is often required in order to purchase alcohol.’
PURSUE:
(Verb) Go in for, take up, engage in. For example: ‘A number of teachers are becoming disillusioned with teaching and are pursuing different careers.’
Q
QUALIFYING WORD:
(grammar term) A word that gives more information to the main subject. Example: ‘Tokyo is a lot more crowded than Auckland’.
QUOTE:
(Verb) Cite, refer to the words of another. For example: ‘No more than two or three sentences should be directly quoted from another author in academic writing.’

IELTS English Vocabulary – R

R
RADICAL:
(Adjective) Drastic, major. For example: ‘The new CEO has already made radical changes to the running of the company.’
RAISE MONEY:
(phrase) To build funds (usually through charity). Example: ‘The school is currently raising money to build a new sports hall’.

RANDOM:
(Adjective) By chance, unsystematic. For example: ‘Members of the public will be chosen at random to take part in the survey.’
RANGE:
(Noun) Variety, choice, selection. For example: ‘The university offers a wide range of choice to students interested in different aspects of business.’
RARE:
(adjective) Not common, very unusual. Example: ‘It is rare to see a kiwi bird as they only come out at night and are easily frightened.’
RATIO:
(Noun) Relative amount, proportion, fraction. For example: ‘The ratio of men and women is unbalanced in a number of countries.’
RATIONAL:
(Adjective) Sensible, logical, with reason. For example: ‘It can be difficult to remain rational about emotional issues.’
REACT:
(Verb) Act in response, respond. For example: ‘People do not react well to criticism or blame.’
RECIPIENT:
(noun) The person who receives something. Example: ‘The recipient must sign their name when receiving a delivery’.
RECIPROCATE:
(verb) To do something in return; to give back. Example: ‘I helped him with his assignment, so he reciprocated by buying me dinner.’
RECITE:
(verb) To speak from memory or from something written. Not a naturally conversation. Example: ‘He had to recite the whole poem in front of the class’.
RECOGNISE:
(verb) To notice; to identify. Example: ‘When listening to the IELTS recording, you may need to recognise the voices of specific speakers.’
RECOMMEND:
(verb) To advise or suggest as the best course of action. ‘He recommended I visit the doctor’
RECOMMENDATION: (noun)
RECOVER:
(verb) Get back, regain. For example: ‘The Goverment is unlikely to recover its support after the recent failure.’
RECTIFY:
(verb) To fix a problem or situation that was not working. Example: ‘In order to rectify the problem of poor diets, many schools now have a healthy eating plan’.
REFER TO:
(verb) Check, look at. Example: ‘When sitting your IELTS test, it is important to refer to the plan you have made as you are writing’.
REFERENCE:
(noun) A mention of. Example: ‘In the reading test, look for references to the keywords in the question’.
REFERENCE WORD:
(noun phrase) Use of a pronoun (he, she, it for example) to refer to a noun mentioned before. Example: ‘Dr Barton was responsible for the project, although he did not complete all of the research.’
REFINE:
(verb) Improve, make better. For example: ‘The company needs to refine its production process as a number of problems have been indentified.’
REGIME:
(noun) System or routine. For example: ‘When trying to lose weight it can be difficult to stick to a strict exercise regime.’
REGION:
(noun) Area, district. For example: ‘The entire region suffered damage in the recent earthquake.’
REGISTER:
(noun) Language used in a specific situation. For example: ‘Formal register is required for academic writing.’
REGULATE:
(verb) Control, monitor. For example: ‘Introduction of the new examination system will be regulated by the Ministry of Education.’
REGULATION:
(noun) A rule or code that must be followed. Example: ‘The council has recently changed the regulations about working dogs’.
REHABILITATION:
(noun) Support and help to recover (physical, emotional or mental). Example: ‘The rehabilitation centre helps many patients to get better’.
REINFORCE:
(verb) Strengthen, give more force to. For example: ‘New information has reinforced our original ideas.’
REITERATE:
(verb) To say again, to repeat (often using different vocabulary). Example: ‘The President reiterated the importance of environmental protection.’
REJECT:
(verb) Refuse, discard, throw out, dismiss. For example: ‘Visa applications can be rejected on the basis of a criminal record.’
RELATE TO:
(verb) Have a connection with. Example: ‘Supernova’ and ‘star’ are words that relate to astronomy’.
RELATIONSHIP:
(noun) A connection. Example: ‘There is a relationship between good health and exercise’.
RELATIVE CLAUSE:
 (noun) A grammar term for a sentence that commonly uses that, who or which to add more information. For example: ‘London, which is the capital of England, is situated near a river’ or ‘The man who lives next door is a doctor’.
RELAX:
(verb) Lighten up, loosen up, calm down. For example: ‘Many people use alcohol as a way to relax in social situations.’
RELEASE:
(verb) Set free. For example: ‘Early release of prisoners into society could be dangerous.’
RELEVANT:
(Adjective) Related to the point in question. For example: ‘His input at the meeting was very relevant to the problem at hand.’
RELIANT:
Being dependent or needing something.
RELOCATE:
(verb) Move to a different place. Example: ‘The promotion involves having to relocate to another city’.
RELY ON:
(verb) Depend on, count on. For example: ‘Many people rely on television as their main form of entertainment.’
REMOVE:
(verb) Eliminate, do away with, get rid of. For example: ‘Since barriers to trade have been removed the country’s export industry has grown dramatically.’
RENT:
(noun) Money spent on accommodation which is paid to the landlord of the property. Example: ‘Rents are often very high in capital cities’.
REPAYMENT:
(noun) Money returned to the lender (often in installments). Example: ‘Many people make repayments to the bank on a monthly basis for private loans’.
REPERCUSSION:
(noun) Consequence, effect, impact. Example: ‘Many families are feeling the repercussion of higher taxes’.
REPETITION:
(noun) duplication; something repeated. Example: ‘It is important to avoid repetition in IELTS writing by using a range of vocabulary’.
REPETITIVE:
(adjective) Describing something that repeats. Example: ‘Some jobs are boring because they are repetitive – the same thing happens every day’.
REPHRASE:
(verb) To give the same information in a different way. Example: ‘In IELTS writing, try not to copy words from the title. Try to rephrase as much as possible.’
REPLY:
(verb) To answer, to respond. Example: ‘It is polite to reply if someone asks you a question’.
(noun) An answer or response.
REQUEST:
(verb) To ask, to enquire. Example: ‘My boss has requested that I work late all next week.’
(noun) An enquiry, something that has been asked for.
REQUIRE:
(verb) Need, need to have. For example: ‘Visitors to the country are required to hold a valid visa.’
REQUIRED:
Something you have to have; something that is needed.
RESEARCH:
(noun) Investigation or study into a given area or topic. For example: ‘Most post-graduate programmes are research-based.’
RESENTMENT:
(noun) A feeling of anger or bitterness. For example: ‘Unfair treatment can cause resentment’.
RESERVATIONS:
(noun) Doubts, concerns. Example: ‘Many parents have reservations about allowing young children to have mobile phones because of the potential risks’.
RESIDE:
(verb) Live. For example: ‘It is necessary to reside in the country for two years before applying for citizenship.’
RESOLVE:
(verb) Solve, put an end to, settle. For example: ‘Schools and parents should work together to resolve the problem.’
RESOURCE:
(noun) Something useful or helpful. For example: ‘The university library has a number of useful resources for academic writing.’
RESPECTED:
(adjective) highly thought of, considered important and influential. Example: “The owner of the company is highly respected by his employees.’
RESPOND:
(verb) Reply, answer. For example: ‘It is important that companies respond to customer complaints quickly and efficiently.’
RESPONSE:
(noun) An answer, a reply. Example: ‘You should always try to use a range of vocabulary and structures in your responses in the IELTS speaking and writing tests.’
RESPONSIBLE:
(adjective) Reliable; dependable. Example: ‘He is very responsible, despite being very young’.
See also IRRESPONSIBLE
RESTORE:
(verb) Bring back. For example: ‘The good results from my last test have restored my confidence after a series of failures.’
RESTRICT:
(verb) Control, limit. For example: ‘The internet makes it difficult for parents to restrict the type of information their children are exposed to.’
RETAIN:
(verb) Maintain, keep. For example: ‘It is difficult to retain a foreign language without regular practice.’
RETIRE:
(verb) To stop work permanently (often at the age of around 60). Example: ‘More and more people are choosing to retire overseas.’
REVEAL:
(verb) Make something known. For example: ‘The Government will reveal its new Budget in April.’
REVENUE:
(noun) Financial income or return. For example: ‘Many people rely on revenue from investments as their retirement fund.’
REVERSE:
(verb) Turn backward. For example: ‘The Government has reversed its decision due to enormous public protest.’
REVISE:
(verb) Study information for an exam, go back over information already learned. For example: ‘Classes finish two weeks before examinations start so there will be plenty of time to revise .’
REVOLUTION:
(noun) Sudden and enormous change or development. For example: ‘The IT revolution has improved the efficiency of businesses.’
REWARD:
(noun) Prize or payment for something done. Example: ‘There was a reward offered for any information about the crime’.
RHETORICAL:
(adjective) A writing style where the writer asks a question which either does not need an answer or the writer answers himself or herself. For example: “Who can make a difference? You can!”. Rhetorical questions are not considered good academic style.
RIGID:
(adjective) Not flexible, strictly maintained. For example: ‘Soldiers in the army are required to follow rigid rules and regulations.’
ROLE:
Job or position. For example: ‘He is taking the role of the Managing Director’
ROLE MODEL:
(noun) A perfect example of behaviour to someone. Example: ‘Parents should act as role models for their children’.
ROUTE:
(noun) Way, direction of reaching something. For example: ‘A sound education offers a solid route to success.’

IELTS English Vocabulary – S

S
SCENARIO:
(noun) Situation, circumstance. For example: ‘Several scenarios could occur as a result if this change.’
SCHEDULE:
(noun) Plan, timetable, programme. For example: ‘He will be on a very busy schedule during his business trip and will have very little free time.’

SCHEME:
(noun) Plan, idea, project. For example: ‘Many schools offer work experience schemes to give students the opportunity to experience the workplace.’
SCOPE:
(noun) Range, capacity, extent. For example: ‘The full scope of the damage caused by the earthquake is still unknown.’
SECTION:
(noun) part, division. For example: ‘Business reports are broken down into sections to allow readers to find information more quickly.’
SECTOR:
(noun) Segment, subdivision. For example: ‘There is generally a shortage of workers in the healthcare sector.’
Occupational sector relates to different categories of job. Example: ‘Salaries are often high for people working in the professional sector’.
SECURE:
(adjective) Safe, protected. For example: ‘Since the company is experiencing financial problems a large number of jobs may no longer be secure.’
SEEK:
(verb) Look for, search for, try to find. For example: ‘Most people seek happiness in their lives.’
SELECT:
(verb) Choose, pick. For example: ‘The new team for the next Olympic Games will be selected soon.’
SEMI-FORMAL:
(adjective) Between casual and formal. Example: ‘The dress code for the party is semi-formal. Suits and ties are not necessary, but jeans are not permitted.’
INFORMAL (casual). Example: ‘Jeans are informal clothes’.
FORMAL (not casual). Example: ‘A suit and tie are formal clothes’.
SENIOR:
(adjective). Older, more respected, higher ranked. Example: ‘New employees can get useful guidance from senior staff’.
SENSITIVE:
(adjective) Delicate. Example: ‘Topics that may cause offence to some people are sensitive issues.’
SENTENCE:
(noun) The penalty given for a crime. The judge gave him a long prison sentence for the crime.
(verb) To punish someone for a crime. For example: ‘He was sentenced to 2 years in prison for the robbery’.
SENTIMENTAL VALUE:
(noun phrase) Something important but not because of money but because of emotional importance or attachment. Example: ‘The necklace I had from my grandmother is not worth much money but it has great sentimental value to me’.
SEQUENCE:
(noun) Order, series, progression. For example: ‘An unfortunate sequence of events led to the closure of the factory.’
SEQUENCING WORD:
(noun phrase) Words showing order of how something happens/happened.  E.g. then, after that, following
SERIES:
(noun) String, chain, run. For example: ‘The company has received a series of complaints about its customer service.’
SHIFT:
(noun) Move, swing, change (towards or away from a pattern of behaviour). For example: ‘Increased health awareness has resulted in a shift away from fatty foods.’
SHORT-SIGHTED:
(adjective) Unable to see future consequences; unable to think over the long term. Example: ‘Many people think it is short-sighted not to take care of the environment’.
SIGNIFICANT:
(adjective) Major, large, big. For example: ‘The graph shows a significant decrease in numbers of smokers.’
(adverb = significantly)
SIMILAR:
(adjective) Alike, almost the same, related, comparable. For example: ‘We often have similar opinions and perceptions as our parents.’
SIMILARITY:
(noun) Being the same or similar to something/someone else. Example: ‘I think there are many similarities between here and my hometown. For example, the weather is about the same’.
SIMULATE:
(verb) Copy, replicate, imitate. For example: ‘Car manufacturers often simulate accidents in quality checks to assess the safety of their vehicles.’
SITE:
(noun) Location. For example: ‘The site for the new school has now been decided and building will commence soon.’
SLIGHTLY:
(adverb) A little, not much. Example: ‘The lecturer said my coursework was slightly improved but I still needed to work harder.’
SOLE:
(adjective) Only, one and only, singular. For example: ‘Many people believe that human impact is the sole cause of global warming.’
SOMEWHAT:
(adjective) rather, fairly, to some extent. For example: ‘The topic is somewhat controversial.’
SOURCE:
(noun) Resource, supply. For example: ‘The internet is a useful source of information.’
SPECIFIC:
(adjective) Particular or exact. Example: ‘It is important to give some specific examples in your writing test.’
SPECIFY:
(verb) Detail, identify, give clear information. For example: ‘The instrcutions specified clearly what we had to do.’
SPECULATE:
(verb) To make a guess, prediction, estimation. ‘He speculated that Italy would win the competition’.
SPECULATION: (noun)
SPHERE:
(noun) Area, field. For example: ‘There are many opportunities in the sphere of business at the moment.’
SPLIT:
(adjective) Separated, divided, not united. Example: ‘Opinion on this controversial issue is split’.
SPONSORSHIP:
(noun) Financial supporting; funding. Example: ‘Some forms of the arts, such as ballet, require government sponsorship in order to continue.’
STABLE:
(adjective) Steady, secure. For example: ‘The economy is currently very stable and consumer expenditure is high .’
STARVATION:
(noun) Hunger which could lead to death. Example: ‘Starvation is still common in some regions of the world.’
STATE:
(verb) To make clear, to say something firmly. Example: ‘The terms of the refund policy were stated on the ticket’.
STATEMENT:
(noun).  A sentence showing opinion or fact. Example: ‘Some IELTS writing tasks give you a statement and then ask your opinion about it.’
STATISTIC:
(noun) Numerical data. For example: ‘Statistics show that more men than women smoke.’
STATIVE VERB:
(noun phrase) A verb wihch describes a feeling, emotion, or state. Example: love, hate, believe, think, own.
STATUS:
(noun) Position, recognition, importance. For example: ‘Many people seek promotion not just for financial gain but also for status.’
STRAIGHTFORWARD:
(adjective) Direct, simple, clear. Example: ‘Some answers in the IELTS test are straightforward. Others are more difficult.’
STRATEGY:
(noun) Plan, tactic. For example: ‘Different people find that different study strategies work best for them.’
STRESS:
(noun) Pressure, anxiety, nervous tension. For example: ‘A large number of school teachers suffer from stress due to their job.’
STRESSFUL:
(adjective) Causing worry and concern. Example: ‘Buying a new house can be very stressful’.
STRIKE:
(noun) An industrial protest where people stop working. Example: ‘The Teacher’s Union is organising a strike to protest about low pay.’
STRIKING:
(adjective) Clear, obvious, notable. Example: ‘Tigers have very striking orange and black markings on their coats’.
STRUCTURE:
(noun) The way in which parts are arranged or put together. Example: ‘A good essay should have a clear structure’.
(verb) To arrange something into clear parts or order. Example: ‘It is important to structure your answer clearly in the IELTS test’.
STYLE:
(noun) Method, approach, way, manner. For example: ‘The majority of workers are unhappy with the new boss and his management style.’
SUBHEADING:
(noun) A heading under the main heading showing a sub section. Example:
SUBMIT:
(verb) Present, give in, put forward. For example: ‘University assignments need to be submitted by due date or a penalty will apply.’
SUBORDINATE:
(noun) Someone subject to authority and control of another. For example: ‘A good manager should support and motivate his subordinates.’
SUBSEQUENT:
(adverb) Following, consequent. For example: ‘The problem was already out of hand and subsequent events have made it even worse.’
SUBSIDY:
(noun) Financial assistance, grant, funding. For example: ‘Subsidies are available to businesses who meet the application criteria.’
SUBSTITUTE:
(noun) Something which replaces or takes the place of something else. For example: ‘Substitute teachers take over classes temporarily when permanent staff are away from work.’
SUCCESSOR:
(noun) A person who replaces another in a specific role. For example: ‘The president’s successor is yet to be decided.’
SUFFER:
(verb) Endure, bear (negative experience or situation). Example: ‘Students suffer because of poor funding in education.’
SUFFICIENT:
(adjective) Enough, adequate. For example: ‘It is a basic human right to have sufficient food to eat, warm housing and clothing.’
SUITABLE:
(adjective) well matched, appropriate. Example: ‘He is very suitable for the position as he has all the skills required’.
Antonym: unsuitable (not well matched, inappropriate)
SUM:
(noun) Figure, amount. For example: ‘A huge sum of money will be required from the Government to fund improvements in the area.’
SUMMARY:
(noun) Outline, review of main facts. For example: ‘In summary, it can be seen that the following advantages and disadvantages exist.’
SUPERIOR:
(adjective) Better than, above. Example: ‘Some people believe that BMWs are superior cars’.
ALSO MEANS:
(adjective) More senior, important. Example: ‘Mr Jones is my immediate superior at work – he’s quite a good boss’.
SUPERLATIVE:
(grammar term) The form of an adjective used for comparing something against two or more things. Example: Tall > the tallest
SUPPLEMENT:
(verb) Add to, enhance, extend. For example: ‘The Government often supplements the income of mothers returning to work in part-time jobs.’
SUPPORT:
(verb) To back up, to make an argument stronger / believable. Example: ‘It is important to support your arguments with examples in the IELTS writing test’.
SUPPORTING INFORMATION:
(noun phrase). Additional details. Example: ‘Paragraphs generally focus on a main message but also include supporting information’
SURNAME:
(noun) A person’s family name.
SURVEY:
(noun) Study, investigation, analysis. For example: ‘The results of the survey will be published ina report.’
SURVIVE:
(verb) Continue to exist, stay alive, live on. For example: ‘Cheaper imports from abroad make it difficult for many companies to survive.’
SUSPEND:
(verb) bar from a privilege, exclude for a period of time. For example: ‘Children who misbehave at school are often suspended from class as punishment.’
SUSTAIN:
(verb) Maintain, keep up. For example: ‘Advertising is an important tool for sustaining sales of an older product.’
SYMBOL:
(noun) Sign, representation, icon. For example: ‘Expensive cars are a symbol of wealth.’
SYNONYM:
(noun) A word that has the same meaning as another. Example happy/joyful, sad/depressed.

IELTS English Vocabulary – T

T
TARGET:
(noun) Object for attack or criticism. For example: ‘Motorists who speed near schools are the target of the Police’s latest saftey campaign.’
TASK:
(noun) Job, chore, duty. For example: ‘Passing of the course involves successful completion of a number of tasks.’

TEAM:
(noun) Group of people working together for the same aim. For example: ‘The department is made up of a team of twenty workers.’
TECHNICAL:
(adjective) Specialised, technological. For example: ‘The process is really very straight-forward and not at all technical.’
TECHNIQUE:
(noun) Method, skill, system. For example: ‘It is a matter of practising and learning the correct technique.’
TECHNOLOGY:
(noun) Electronic/digital know-how. For example: ‘We know have the technology to do many things we once thought impossible.’
TEMPORARY:
(adjective) Short-term, not permanent. For example: ‘Temporary shelters were set up until people were able to return to their own homes.’
TEMPTATION:
(noun) Something that seems attractive; motivates someone to act in a certain way. Example: ‘The temptation to socialise can cause students to neglect their studies.’
TENSE:
(adjective) Anxious, worried, stressed. For example: ‘ It is quite common to feel tense before an important exam.’
TERMINATE:
(verb) End, finish, cease. For example: ‘The contract may be terminated with one month’s notice period.’
TEXT:
(noun) Book or part of a book, passage. For example: ‘In the IELTS reading exam it is useful to underline key words in the text.’
THEME:
(noun) Subject, topic. For example: ‘Common themes for the IELTS test are society, health, education and technology.’
THEORY:
(noun) Idea, concept. For example: ‘The theories learned at university provide background knowledge for use in the business world.’
THEREBY:
(adverb) In that way, By this means, In doing so. For example: ‘More investment should be put into rural areas thereby increasing employment opportunities there.’
THESIS:
(noun) Academic research project. For example: ‘A university professor will be appointed to each student to supervise the writing of their thesis.’
TITLE:
(noun) Showing a person’s status (e.g. Mr, Mrs, Dr, Sir, Professor, etc)
(noun) A heading or name given to something (e.g. the title of a book, the title of a movie)
TO BE INCLINED:
(verb) To prefer to do something; to lean towards and action or idea. ‘More pople will be inclined to protect the environment, if it is made easier for them to do so.’
TOLERATE:
(verb) To accept, to allow to happen. Example: ‘Too many parents tolerate bad behaviour from their children’.
TOPIC:
(noun) Subject, focus. For example: ‘Topics for IELTS writing exams are often related to social issues.’
TRACE:
(verb) Track, locate, discover. For example: ‘It is difficult to trace calls made from mobile phones.’
TRADESPEOPLE:
(noun) People that are employed in a skilled trade such as carpenters, plumbers or electricians.
TRADITION:
(noun) Custom, practice followed for some time. For example: ‘Many important traditions are rejected or forgotton by modern society.’
TRANSFER:
 (verb) To move from one place to another or from one type to another. Example: ‘In the IELTS reading test, candidates have to complete the test and transfer their answer to the answer paper in 60 minutes’.
TRANSFORM:
(verb) Dramatically change appearance of. For example: ‘Landfill areas can be transformed into beautiful park areas which can be enjoyed by the public.’
TRANSITION:
(noun) Conversion, changeover. For example: ‘It can be difficult for people to make the transition from working all day to a quieter life when they retire.’
TRANSITIVE VERB:
(noun phrase) A verb that does not require an object. Example: live, die.
TRANSMIT:
(verb) Spread, pass on. For example: ‘On rare occasions infections have been transmitted through blood transfusions.’
TRANSPORT:
(noun) Form of vehicle used to get from one place to another. For example: ‘Free public transport should be available to retired people.’
TREND:
(noun) General direction or pattern of behaviour. Example: ‘There has been an increasing  trend towards having smaller families’.
TRIGGER:
(verb) Set off, cause to start. For example: ‘The recent policy change has triggered a great deal of protest.’
TURN DOWN:
(phrasal verb) To reject or refuse. Example: ‘I turned down the job offer because the salary was too low’.

IELTS English Vocabulary U – W

U
ULTIMATE:
(adjective) Of the greatest size or significance. For example: ‘Finding a solution to this problem is of ultimate importance.’
UNDER-PRIVILEGED:
(adjective) Not having an acceptable standard of living. Example: ‘Many charities provide toys for under-privileged children’.

UNDERLIE:
(verb) Be the basis of. For example: ‘There are several reasons which underlie the changes.’
UNDERMINE:
(verb) To weaken, to cause to collapse. Example: ‘You can undermine an opposing point of view by identifying its weaknesses’.
UNDERTAKE:
(verb) Commit to, take on. For example: ‘At a wedding ceremony the bride and groom undertake to support each other for the rest of their lives.’
UNIFORM:
(adjective) The same, equal, very similar. Example: ‘Fast food chains attempt to offer a uniform standard of service across all their sites.’ 
(noun) A specific set of clothes for a job. For example: a nurse’s uniform, a soldier’s uniform
UNIQUE:
(adjective) Only one of its kind, special. For example: ‘The company says that it offers unique work opportunities to its employees.’
UNITY:
(noun) Agreement, harmony. For example: ‘It is important there is unity of purpose in order to solve this problem.’
UNSCRUPULOUS:
(adjective) Without principles, morals or ethics. Example: ‘It is unscrupulous for companies to exploit child labour.’ See ETHICS.
UTILISE:
(verb) Use, use up. For example: ‘Energy-saving light bulbs utilise less electricity than regular ones.’
V
VALID:
(adjective) Legitimate, justifiable. For example: ‘Being late is not a valid excuse for speeding.’
VARIATION:
(noun) Alternative, different version of something. Example: ‘There are many variations of multiple choice questions in the IELTS test – short answer, long answer etc…’
VARY:
(verb) differ, show differences. For example: ‘Opinions vary on this subject.’
VEHICLE:
(noun) motorised form of transport. For example: ‘It is irresponsible and dangerous to be in charge of a vehicle while under the influence of alcohol.’
VERB:
A verb is an action word. Example: run, expect, hope, demand
VERSION:
(noun) Form, type, style, variety. For example: ‘The new version of the computer software has many more functions than the old one.’
VERTICAL:
(adjective) At 90 degrees, straight up. Example: Unlike aeroplanes, helicopters can do a vertical take off.
VIA:
(preposition) Through, by means of. For example: ‘We can now access all kinds of information quickly and easily via the internet.’
vide:
vide
VIOLATE:
(verb) Disturb, intrude on. For example: ‘It is unacceptable where a situation violates our human rights.’
VIOLENCE:
(noun) Physical harm to another person. Example: ‘Violence at football matches is, unfortunately, a common sight.’
VISIBLE:
(adjective) Apparent, obvious, able to be seen. For example: ‘There have been no visible benefits to the change in policy.’
VISUAL:
(adjective) Able to be seen by the eye. For example: ‘Visual aids help to make a presentation more interesting to the audience.’
VOLUME:
(noun) Quantity, amount. For example: ‘The volume of water that we waste every day is enormous.’
VOLUNTARY:
(adjective) Unpaid, charitable. For example: ‘A significant amount of assistance given in third world countries is given by voluntary workers.’
VOLUNTEER:
(noun) a person works for free out of choice. Example: ‘Many volunteers help at the homeless shelter.’
VOWEL:
(noun) The letters a,e,i,o and u.
Some words can begin with a vowel sound even though the first letter is a consonant. Example: hour, honour.
VULNERABLE:
(adjective) Defenceless, helpless, at risk. Example: ‘Older people are more vulnerable to ill health caused by cold weather’.
W
WEALTHY:
(adjective) Having a lot of something (commonly money) Example: ‘Bill Gates is a very wealthy man’.
WELFARE:
(noun) Well-being. For example: ‘As a society we should be responsible for the welfare of the elderly.’
WHEREAS:
(conjunction) While, but. For example: ‘Promotion for women at work is even now sometimes difficult, whereas men often have more opportunities and earn higher wages .’
WIDESPREAD:
(adjective) Very common, all around. For example: ‘Death from treatable diseases is widespread in the developing world.’
WORTHWHILE:
(adjective) Has value and purpose. Example: ‘I thought that studying the course was worthwhile as I learned a lot.’

English Idioms – All Board, Turn Coat and Broken Reed

English Idioms – All Board, Turn Coat and Broken Reed

1.       Above board (without any trick; honorable).
His part in the affair was quite open and above board.
2.       All in all     (1) (on the whole) All in all we had a good time.
(2) of supreme or exclusive importance)
He is all in all in this office.
3.       A jaundiced eye (a prejudiced outlook)
A jaundiced eye cannot evaluate matters in the light of reason.

4.       A turn-coat (a person who changes his political affiliations
frequently)
The turn-coats are responsible for the failure of democracy in our     
country.
5.       On the alert (vigilant; watchful)
A watchman on duty should always be on the alert.
6.       After one’s own heart (in accordance with one’s liking or wish)
He is a man after my own heart.
7.       Of one’s own accord (freely; voluntarily)
He did it of his own accord.
8.       To be at loggerheads (disagreeing or disputing)
He is constantly at loggerheads with his wife.
9.       A past master (a through master)
He is past master in the art of painting.
10.   To all intents and purposes (practically)
To all intents and purposes, he is the chief organizer of this show.
11.   A live wire (an enthusiastic person)
He is a man of revolutionary spirit; he is a live wire.
12.   To add insult to injury (cause further humilitation)
He insulted him and added insult to injury by ridiculing his parents.
13.   All moonshine (mere show; deceit)
He talks much of his riches, but it is all moonshine.
14.   A wet blanket (a dull person; one who discourages others)
Do not invite him to this colourful function; he is a wet blanket.
15.   A willing horse (a helpful person; a willing worker)
A willing horse always remains in the good books of his boss.
16.   A burning question (urgent; having great importance)
His prices is one of the burning questions of our time.
17.   A rainy day (a period of financial difficulty or distress)
Save up something against a rainy day.
18.   A right-hand man(a close trusted fellow)
He is the right-hand man of the principal.
19.   A man of letters (a scholar; a writer)
A man of letters is held in high esteem in the world.
20.   A broken reed (an unreliable person or thing)
He is a broken reed; you cannot rely on him.
21.   A red rag to a bull (a cause for irritation)
My remark acted like a red rag to a bull; he began to roar in anger.
22.   All at sea (bewildered; confused)
He was all at sea in the face of this unexpected twist of fortune.
23.   At sixes and sevens (in confusion; topsy-turvy)
He went away in a hurry and left the house at sixes and sevens.